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Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust

Introduction, Purpose and significance of study

Jimenez & San (2009) carried out a detailed study about “The role of country-of-origin, ethnocentrism and animosity in promoting consumer trust: The moderating role of familiarity.” The fundamental purpose of the study is to develop a multidisciplinary model that explains the aspects relating to a country of origin (COO). Further, the study explores these aspects in order to give an empirical evidence of how various psychological variables relate with the exchange factor (trust) (Jimenez & San (2009). The critical analysis of the article reveals that most of the literatures used in this study are recent. The selection and use of study provide the researchers with a basis to articulate their research with authority (Belk, 2006).

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The study is expansive in nature as evidenced by extensive literatures covering an extensive period before narrowing their study to the current period. The study offers an insightful knowledge for managers to apply the positive elements of study in order for them to benefit from the market conditions now, and in the near future

The hypotheses of the study

The objective the research is to offer empirical evidence on the relationship between various variables such the ethnocentrism, animosity, reputation of firms and consumer trust. The research carefully develops a candid review of literature used in the design of the hypotheses. Therefore, the hypotheses formulated by the study depend on the strong background study conducted by Jimenez & San (2009).To support the design of their hypotheses, the researchers have supplied relevant and literature capable of validating their propositions. In developing a hypothesis based on relevant and well-explained theory, a researcher allows room for simple review of their analysis.

The authors have clearly outlined five hypotheses both of which are short, precise, and simple to understand. To build their hypotheses, the researchers have provided an extensive explanation based on previous studies conducted on similar variables. The validity of their hypotheses has relied on the recent and material studies conducted by other researchers (Belk, 2006). As such, the hypotheses have gained insight from the already existing researches used by the authors.

Method of Study

Study design, sample and study setting

The study employs a quantitative design to study the relationship between the psychological variables and the exchange variable. The study setting is Spain, which provides the premise for collection of primary data from a sample comprised of 202 participants who are users or owners of automobile. Although the sample validity is checked, the results stand the challenge based on its inability to offer a basis for generalization of the automobile markets (Gravetter & Forzano, 2011).

The researchers employed descriptive data in their study. The researchers collected data through administration of questionnaires to 350 participants who were Spanish automobile owners. The study clearly outlines random sampling as a technique used during the selection of study subjects. To demonstrate the validity of the samples, a filter question the researchers utilized to establish if the respondent had owned an automobile at least once. Although the study utilized adequate methods of analysis, the relatively small sample may not be sufficient to explain the expansive automobile market witnessed in Spain (Laurel, 2003).To enhance this study, an extensive sample size could help to achieve to give a general image of the market.


To ensure validity of the measurements used by the study, the researchers employed relevant literature, and the variables measured on a five-point Likert scale. The researchers carefully considered the reputation of firms selected for analysis. This measurement relied on the previous analysis conducted by Doney & Cannon (1997), Kaynak & Kara (2002, and Yasin, Noor, & Mohamad (2007). The researchers used a widely accepted scale to measure the dependent variable of the study. In general, the researchers employed necessary measurements that validated their variables in order to establish an informed analysis of the study topic.

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In measuring familiarity, the researchers conducted interviews on participants who demonstrated knowledge on the selected firms. Before testing and measuring familiarity, Jimenez & San (2009) conducted a pre-test on consumer perceptions in order to avoid individualized generalizations by the subjects interviewed. The process of selecting the variables to establish the relationship is in consensus with the study requirements (Gravetter & Forzano, 2011).Thematic analysis using qualitative data obtained from the interviews provided a better form of measure. However, the study could have employed a mixed method in establishing a well-grounded measurement.

Data analysis and results

The analysis achieves unidimensionality of the variables by applying exploratory analysis. Data analysis used LISREL equation modeler to develop the relationship between various variables. The researchers have tabulated the results to ensure its understandability. The researchers explain their findings in a vivid manner by pointing on the analysis of the results and findings (Wodak & Meyer, 2009).

In their study, the researchers discussed the results while emphasizing on the relationship of psychological variables with the dependent variable (trust) in the study area, Spain. The theoretical framework employed draws from the background literature that provides a fundamental basis of the study. Although the study utilizes numerous recent studies, a good number of studies are old, which may compromise the results due to the market dynamics that may have occurred between these times up to the period of the study.

Conclusion and recommendation for future studies

It is arguable that no single study can be perfect in the realms of research. Research is a continuous process that seeks to find knowledge and facts, which relevant for future inquiry. Therefore, the notion of completeness of a research study does not occupy relevant space in the realms of research. The analysis of the article reveals that the researchers have carefully considered the need for subjection of a research to a logical and informed review with a goal to validate, critique, or improve it for the benefit of the field of study. In their conclusion, Jimenez & San (2009) have given room for improvement of their research in future studies. It is critical that a research paves the way for further scrutiny and evaluation by other researchers (Gliner & Morgan, 2000).

To improve their research, the authors of the article suggest that whereas their study has significantly contributed to the study topic, further inclusion of relevant variables was necessary. They suggest market variables that influence market trust such as price, consumer satisfaction, implication, previous experience, and brand quality Jimenez & San (2009). The study by Jimenez & San (2009) challenges the future research efforts aimed at contributing toward the role of country of origin, animosity, ethnocentrism in promoting consumer trust. In their submission, Jimenez & San (2009) suggests that a test of their study model to other product sectors in order to ascertain its applicability across the field of marketing. To ensure the success of this process, the researchers propose validity tests on their model as the means through which their model could offer insight into how these variables influence consumer trust.


  1. Belk, W. R. (2006). Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing. New York, NY: Edward Edgar Publishing.
  2. Gliner, J. A., & Morgan, G. A. (2000). Research methods in applied settings: an integrated approach to design and analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.
  3. Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. B. (2011). Research methods for Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Cengage Leraning.
  4. Jimenez, N. H., & San Martın, S. (2009).The role of country-of-origin, ethnocentrism and animosity in promoting consumer trust: The moderating role of familiarity. International Business Review: 1-12
  5. Laurel, B. (2003). Design research: methods and perspectives. New York, NY: The MIT Press.
  6. Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Methods of critical discourse analysis. New York, NY: Sage Publications Ltd.

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"Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust." StudyCorgi, 21 Dec. 2021,

1. StudyCorgi. "Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust." December 21, 2021.


StudyCorgi. "Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust." December 21, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust." December 21, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Country’s Factors For Promoting Consumer Trust'. 21 December.

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