When we talk about culture, we mean the values, customs, rituals, behaviours and belief which we share with others in order to create a relation being as a group. On the other hand organisational culture deals with shared values though there also we find assumptions, beliefs and customs but here it creates a relation with the organisational members. It can be mentioned that culture is the collective programming of the human mind which makes one group different from the other.
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First, Power Distance refers to social inequality and the amount of authority one person has over others. From a behavioural perspective, a strong Power Distance is observed which manifests in the form of reluctance to challenge the choices and activities of leaders regardless of their appropriateness. Second, Uncertainty Avoidance relates to how a culture deals with conflict, especially the creation of beliefs and institutions to deal with disagreements and aggression. Those cultures which score high in the dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance (Rules and Order) strongly believe that all rules and regulations must at any cost be abided, even in cases when it may be conflicting with a company’s interests or security circumstances. They also hold that well documented procedures should be in place for all circumstances and in addition, stringent time constraints must be applied to all activities. Low Uncertainty Avoidance score indicate that those cultures are more likely to transgress Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs). However, this may be advantageous when dealing with unprecedented circumstances by means of adopting new and innovative means to tackle the same.
Third, concept of Individualism & Collectivism denotes a bipolar construct wherein cultures tend to be towards the individualistic or collectivistic. Cultures which tend to be more individualistic in nature are formed by individuals who are more concerned only about themselves or their closely related associates. On the other hand, in cultures which are more collectivistic, it is observed that people tend to form in-groups or cooperatives wherein caring for others is valued and loyalty is expected in return. Those belonging to individualistic cultures pay more attention to self and individual gains whereas compliance with the group ideals is often observed in people belonging to collectivistic cultures. High Power Distance scores are often observed in collectivistic cultures, indicating disposed approval of unequal status and respect towards leaders. Lastly, Masculinity and Femininity stands for a bipartite construct which signifies two very dissimilar sets of social principles. From the masculine perspective, the most significant ideals are related to accomplishment and wealth. In the feminine standpoint, better quality of life and care and concern for others are looked upon as fundamental values.
Culture is also a major factor that affects behaviour. A conceptualization of the total situation is summarized in Lewin’s formula, B=f(PV x C), where B represents behaviour, a function of the interdependence between performance value (PV) and cultural background (C). If a person’s cultural background does not agree with this person’s performance value, then the person’s behaviour will be affected.
In conclusion, interaction amongst individuals of varying national cultures is frequently weakened by language related obstacles in addition to traditional values of the different cultures. Language oriented difficulties are although undesirable but a very much existent feature of culture. English being the principal means of communication may aggravate the difficulty. While individuals from various cultures have multi-lingual background, those belonging to Anglo cultures commonly converse only in English and may not be able to comprehend the difficulties experienced by those belonging to different cultures in grasping communication techniques in English. A straightforward answer to the difficulty based on lingual grounds is nonexistent but the reality needs to be confronted.