We always are inside of the nature, under influence of its forces. If, being inside of the nature, we do not feel ourselves well and conveniently, and we test every possible pressure: the internal pressure in the person, pressure of a society, the environmental problems, the nature is a sign on that forces of the nature all still has a great impact on us, pushing us to development.
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In fact any pressure rendered by the nature on each part, is made with the purpose to develop it. In addition, if this part has been developed enough, moderately necessities would be in balance with the nature, and the nature wishes to result each creation and each component in this condition. All nature operates according to the law entropy, to laws of thermodynamics, many other things to laws. We should check up it. Thus the nature aspires to come to a condition of rest, balance, balance of pressure and forces. Only having reached this point, the nature will stop. For now it will not reach an equilibrium condition, imbalance forces will cause movement to development. Proceeding from it, we should understand, that all still we are in process developments. It is not necessary to think, that the person was already finally generated and does not require any changes. We, as the most developed and most sensitive part from all components of the nature: lifeless, vegetative, animal and human, should pass faster, extreme, effective, essential development in comparison with all other parts of the nature (Pringle).
Darwin and XIX century
The XIX-th century is remarkable for its controversial character. It should be mentioned that the most controversial issue of that time was the problem of science and religion. It was a great revolution in human knowledge about their creation. People got new imagination about their nature.
The idea of biological evolution has existed since ancient times, notably among Greek philosophers such as Epicurus and Anaximander. However, scientific theories of evolution were not established until the 18th and 19th centuries, by scientists such as Jean-Babtiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin. The transmutation of species was accepted by many scientists before 1859, but the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection provided the first cogent theory for a mechanism by which evolutionary change could occur: natural selection. (Mayr, 2002)
Darwin’s theory nearly shattered the traditional Christian notion that humanity, poised between beast and angel, was literally formed in God’s image. Darwin pointed out, long before we knew that we share 98.5 percent of our genetic material with chimpanzees, that what looks back at us in the mirror is not the face of God but is kin to the earthbound apes. As the Edinburgh Review warned at the time, “a revolution in thought is imminent, which will shake society to its very foundations by destroying the sanctity of the conscience and the religious sense.” (Zimmer, 2002)
All the statements of Darwinian Theory were in strong contradiction with the religious views. Darwin was sure that life on Earth is directly connected with the fight for living. In addition the strongest survives and the weakest loses their right for living. According to Darwin’s theory, there is always a great resistance and contradiction in nature. More over Darwin supposed that this theory reflected the life of humans also. This, of course, was totally opposite to religious views, where everything should exist in harmony with each other. Religion considers that life is given to everyone and we should co-exist in the world peacefully.
It is interesting that Indian anthropologist Lalita Vidyardi, who devoted many years of her life to the learning of Darwinism, states that Darwinian theory of evolution, caused the ideas of racism in social sciences. She said that many scientists believed that the civilization and progress in the world were achieved thanks to the white race and in the second part of the XIX-the century the phenomenon of racism was accepted as a fact by a greatest part of western scientists. Opposite to this religion states that everyone is equal before God and has right for living (Larson, 2004).
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So, it is obvious that the problem of science and religion is still of current importance and it is really difficult to define where the truth is.
Religion as the institution of the greatest secrets of life, where it is impossible to predict the future, will be always a greatest enemy for the scientific knowledge, which is the institution of reason and thinking. Science gives the possibility to make the prognosis the future using the experience of the past.
Pringle’s essay “The Way We Woo”. Web.
Thomas S. Kuhn’s “The Route to Normal Science.” 3d edition. 226 p. 5-1/4 x 8 1962, 1970, 1996.
Larson Edward J., Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory (Modern Library Chronicles). Modern Library (2004).
Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. Basic Books (2002).
Zimmer, Carl. Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea. Perennial (2002).