To begin with, it is necessary to mention that mitigation is the key assignment of the emergency management. Mitigation itself is the necessary effort aimed at decreasing the dangerous impact of disasters on people and property. The mitigation actions should be taken before the disaster strikes. Mitigation of the terrorism includes the security measures, aimed at excluding the likelihood of a terroristic attack. From the viewpoint of risk assessment and prevention, terrorism mitigation requires the incorporation of serious security measures on the governmental level. Originally, managing security risks on the governmental level are associated with the increasing reliance on the IT sphere. (Bullock, 2006, 17) Particularly, the federal agencies, like any other organization, have to find the necessary ways of preventing, or, at least, mitigating the probable hazard, and the approaches for finding these ways are different, and depend on every particular situation.
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The evaluation of the potential risks from terrorist actions is similar to the evaluation of other risks and hazards, such as dam failure, earthquake or any other event where the annual probability of such event is comparatively low, however, the consequences may be high. These events, first of all, should be included in the mitigation planning. The consequences of serious terrorist actions are generally rather dangerous, thus, the pragmatic measures should be inevitably warranted. (Smith, 2006, 56)
Originally, the effects of terrorism can vary significantly from loss of single life to mass destruction, numerous injuries and damage to infrastructure: electricity, water supply, transportation and communications. From this point of view, the preparation for terroristic attack is similar to any catastrophe. It is necessary to emphasize that mitigation measures from other disasters often help to decrease the consequences of a terroristic attack. Thus, the “all-hazards” mitigation approaches are elaborated. These techniques are created on the basis of the existing programs that are aimed to mitigate natural and technological disasters, focusing on public security. The mitigation steps entail the following points:
- Define the vulnerabilities of the facility or infrastructure, and fined structural strategies of mitigation
- Increase security measures at critical objects
- Create the vehicle barrier systems
- Define the mitigation strategies in order to increase security measures, and reduce the vulnerability of the objects.
- Incorporate the coordinated and well-elaborated emergency management systems, improve and enhance the communication systems (Lesser, 1999, 23)
The mitigation actions which are aimed at decreasing the terroristic attack risks also entail the following steps:
- Define the specific consequences which should be avoided
- Evaluate the credibility of malevolent actions
- Estimate the current safety measures.
- Set up the priorities in risk mitigation plan (Levy, 2003, 38)
Risk mitigation is the serious task which should be solved not only by business corporations, but also by federal agencies. Originally, risks are evaluated depending on the profile of the company, however, the consequences of the disasters may be equally hazardous. Terrorism mitigation is the assignment that should be solved on all governmental levels, and, in comparison with risk mitigation the terrorism mitigation entails several additional steps, as originally, risk mitigation and terrorist mitigation are similar tasks.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., Coppola, D., Ergin, E., Westerman, L., & Yeletaysi, S. (2006) “Introduction to homeland security” Elsevier publishing
Lesser, I. O., Hoffman, B., Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D., & Zanini, M. (1999). Countering the New Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
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Levy, B. S. & Sidel, V. W. (Eds.). (2003). Terrorism and Public Health: A Balanced Approach to Strengthening Systems and Protecting People. New York: Oxford University Press.
Smith, J. F. (2006). Budgeting for Disasters: Part I. Overview of the Problem Budgeting Philosophies and Practices Can Be Applied to Different Disaster Response Challenges: Planning, Prevention, Preparedness, Mitigation, Response, Recovery, Remediation, and Reconstruction. The Public Manager, 35(1), 11