The treatment of diabetes is complicated and requires many changes in lifestyles to cope with daily problems associated with the need to do injections or take pills, self-control, dietary restrictions, and regular exercises. In general, life with diabetes requires a large number of changes that need to be made, which is much harder to achieve than just taking medication. Although treatment of diabetes is considered to be evidence-based, it is essential to make sure that patients believe in its success based on continuous educational sessions.
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Rationale for the Project
Several studies indicate poor adaptability of patients to various aspects of diabetic care, including diet, regular blood testing, or confidence in treatment. Some factors explain why patients may reject their treatment. For example, insufficient knowledge of diabetes and why it needs to be treated, the belief that they are healthy, and relatively good quality of life may be noted (Hermanns, Kulzer, Ehrmann, Bergis-Jurgan, & Haak, 2013).
There are also specific patients who cannot explain their unusual position and behavior. In this connection, a nurse is responsible for revealing and influencing the latent reasons, according to which a patient does not agree to be treated. It is necessary to initiate the proposed study to enrich the practice of nursing related to the treatment of patients with diabetes. The greater the understanding of patient behavior, the better is nurses’ work with them based on education and sensitivity to their needs.
Most importantly, it is essential to explain to patients that increased awareness of their health problem is likely to benefit their attitudes towards treatment. Such advantages as health promotion, fiscal revenue in terms of health care sector, and greater efficiency in disease treatment are expected to be achieved. The recent study by Hermanns et al. (2013) shows that patient education allowed to grow diabetes self-efficacy, overall empowerment, and patient satisfaction with the therapy. Since the proposed project will be conducted within a four-week period, one may suggest that similar results will be received.
The treatment of diabetes is impossible without control or, more properly, self-monitoring of blood glucose. A patient with diabetes should learn as much as possible about his or her disease since the participation in the medical process is necessary. No other chronic disease treatment needs the participation of a patient as active as in the case of diabetes. According to the experts of the World Health Organization (WHO), responsibility for health lies with a patient with diabetes, who relies on the support of health professionals and society as a whole (Shrivastava, Shrivastava, & Ramasamy, 2013). In this regard, there is a need to educate patients on the methods of disease control and involve them in active and competent participation in the therapeutic processes.
Some patients tend to reject timely blood glucose control because they do not believe in its effectiveness. They also are likely to refuse to admit that diabetes treatment may improve their quality of life, while patients’ perceptions are largely associated with a lack of relevant knowledge about the disease (Al-Mountashiri, Al-Zhrani, Ibrahim, & Mirghani, 2017). In fact, the main problem associated with training is a substitution of learning with simple information provision without the involvement of a person to whom this information is intended.
People with diabetes under a formally obtained education can still be only passive participants in the treatment of their disease. Therefore, the goal of education is not only to fill the lack of knowledge but also to promote the progressive change in the views of patients with diabetes on the disease and its treatment. As a result, the mentioned initiative is likely to lead to positive change in attitudes and a genuine ability to manage diabetes care in an active alliance with a physician and a nurse.
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A patient’s belief that he or she can feel better as a result of treatment is essential. His or her assessment of the disease should be in close association with the information he or she receives from nurses. In their article, Bayat et al. (2013) consider the model of belief in health that should be used by nurses to encourage patients to undergo treatment. The basic premise of this model is that behavior is determined by the balance between the values professed by an individual and the goal to which he or she aspires. In terms of nursing care, it may be interpreted as a patient’s desire to overcome the disease and strengthen the belief that this form of treatment will be effective (Bayat et al., 2013).
The purpose of training patients with diabetes is to develop motivation in patients so that they can take an active part in the treatment process along with the acquisition of practical knowledge and skills necessary for adaptation to qualitatively new living conditions.
Significance of the Problem
Currently, treatment along with prophylactic care for people with diabetes worldwide is mainly performed in outpatient settings. At the same time, education of patients with chronic diseases is a developed scientific and practical field of nursing based on regulated recommendations prescribed by various national organizations. Specifically designed structured programs are used for training, which proved to be effective in the framework of controlled studies (Bayat et al., 2013).
At this point, a successful organization of the learning process is necessary to resolve daily tasks. Education of patients with diabetes is likely to teach nurses how to properly use methods, strategies, and approaches to treatment. In other words, their knowledge and competencies would also grow along with those of patients. It is also critical to note that nurses should pursue continuous development of their professional skills to understand their patients’ needs and expectations.
On a national scale, the significance of the identified problem refers to the potential creation of a multi-professional team of care providers. For example, the participation of psychologists in education may be necessary as they present great potential for the effectiveness of teaching diabetes patients based on continuous development and improvement of a psychological approach to this process.
The cooperative work of nurses and psychologists to enhance the system of educating diabetes patients allows approaching a biopsychosocial model of care and providing effective assistance to patients with this chronic illness (Segal, Leach, May, & Turnbull, 2013). Most importantly, the collaboration of specialists is rather important for health care sector as it ensures creating common views on the problem of diabetes as well as coordinated actions.
Nursing Practice Benefits of the Project
The main benefit of the proposed project to nursing practice is greater awareness of how education impacts patient engagement in self-care processes and confidence in the success of the treatment. In particular, the following PICOT question would be used to conduct the project: in diabetic patients aged 40-65 years’ old (P), does 30 minutes of teaching in diet and exercise weekly (I), N/A (C) improve confidence in the treatment (O), quality of life and blood sugar control in a four weeks’ period (T)?
As the expected outcome, one may state that the results would allow understanding how education of the identified population may improve their quality of life, blood glucose monitoring, and the overall belief in the treatment effectiveness. It is expected that the direct connection between the mentioned issues would be discovered as education would increase patient awareness and engagement in the process of care.
The anticipated project results are consistent with evidence-based guidelines and outcomes. As stated by Segal et al. (2013), a biopsychosocial construct of health helps to provide the best care to patients, focusing on their needs and values. In their turn, Bayat et al. (2013) identify the effectiveness of the extended health belief model that is also suggested by WHO as the one that has great potential to increase patient confidence. The project may also affect other populations and settings, including older adults with diabetes, patients living in rural or suburban areas, outpatient context, and so on.
Even though the mentioned populations and conditions differ from those pointed out in the project, the results may still be used with regards to them with some adjustments. Thus, the scope of the project may be formulated as follows: to analyze the target population and study the impact of four-week education on patients’ belief in treatment, better quality of life, and blood glucose control. The boundaries of the project are associated with age (40-65 years), intervention (education on dieting and exercising), and timeframe (four weeks). Since the problem of diabetes in adults tends to grow exponentially, the project relevance cannot be overestimated.
Al-Mountashiri, N. A., Al-Zhrani, A. M., Ibrahim, S. F. H., & Mirghani, H. O. (2017). Dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. Electronic Physician, 9(9), 5179–5184. Web.
Bayat, F., Shojaeezadeh, D., Baikpour, M., Heshmat, R., Baikpour, M., & Hosseini, M. (2013). The effects of education based on extended health belief model in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 12(1), 45-51. Web.
Hermanns, N., Kulzer, B., Ehrmann, D., Bergis-Jurgan, N., & Haak, T. (2013). The effect of a diabetes education programme (PRIMAS) for people with type 1 diabetes: Results of a randomized trial. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 102(3), 149-157. Web.
Segal, L., Leach, M. J., May, E., & Turnbull, C. (2013). Regional primary care team to deliver best-practice diabetes care: A needs-driven health workforce model reflecting a biopsychosocial construct of health. Diabetes Care, 36(7), 1898-1907. Web.
Shrivastava, S. R., Shrivastava, P. S., & Ramasamy, J. (2013). Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 12(1), 14-19. Web.
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