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Diabetes: Possible Interventions

The last several decades could be characterized by the increased importance of dietary habits and the impact they have on the state of a person health. The fact is that the tendency towards the deterioration of the quality of products triggered by the alterations in the environment and numerous food supplements preconditioned the appearance of numerous health problems as well as the rise of chronic diseases.

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According to the data provided by the World Health Organization, app. 400 million of people across the globe are currently suffering from diabetes (not including those who have not been diagnosed), and this figure is to exceed 500 million by 2035 (Ley, Hamdy, Mohan, & Hu, 2014). Moreover, there are still a lot of those who are not aware of having diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2017). For this reason, the comprehensive investigation of the issue becomes crucial for the health of the nation and its ability to survive.

The situation is also complicated by the unique nature of the problem. The fact is that the occurrence of the issue does not depend on the county’s level of development, which implies that even people from highly advanced regions are not safeguarded from it (American Diabetes Association, 2017). For this reason, the given study turns out to be extremely relevant as it delves into the problem that threatens numerous communities and raises many issues related to the healthcare sector.

The gradual deterioration of the state of the nations health is the main priority that should be given the great attention at the moment. For this reason, the majority of issues touched upon in the paper turn out to be extremely relevant for the modern environment and could be used for the further research of the topic and for the improvement of the basic understanding of the most important aspects of the given problem.

The above-mentioned relevance of the study preconditions the introduction of the following purpose and hypothesis that are needed to guarantee the comprehensive investigation of the sphere and provide credible conclusions. The purpose of the proposed research is to obtain a better understanding of effective patterns for preventing type 2 diabetes. It comes from the complex situation in the given sphere and the necessity of the creation of the course of actions that will be able to slow down the spread of the disease and help patients suffering from type 2 diabetes to enjoy the life and preserve its quality on a certain level. The hypothesis runs as follows:

Meaningful changes in lifestyle (reviewing nutrition and physical exercise patterns) are helpful for preventing type 2 diabetes.

The hypothesis rests on the latest investigations which state that crucial alterations of dietary habits and the lifestyle could really help to improve the quality of life and prevent the development of different diseases.

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The comprehensive investigation of the issue and the above-mentioned objectives precondition the usage of a specific methodology that could help to obtain the credible data and create the basis for the following discussion. Besides, primary data could be obtained from scholarly articles devoted to the issue. For this reason, literature review becomes one of the suggested methods used to incorporate the specific knowledge and create a theoretical framework for the discussion.

Analysis of the secondary data will be coupled with an experimental intervention based on various exercise and dieting patterns (as well as no changes in lifestyle) and measuring the level of blood sugar level of patients with prediabetes before, during, and after the program. In this regard, the mixed qualitative-quantitative approach could be considered the most appropriate for the investigation of the issue. The exploration of the given methodology is expected to help an investigator to collect the information needed to either prove or refute the above-mentioned hypothesis and make credible conclusions.

Literature review

As stated above, diabetes becomes one of the most topical issues peculiar to the modern health care sector. Marks (2015) in his paper states that a number of the most problematic chronic diseases that deteriorate the quality of peoples lives could be considered a result of poor dietary habits, the wrong mode of life, inappropriate quality of products, and other problems peculiar to the modern technologic society.

In his article, the author also states that the lack of access or overstock of products triggers the evolution of numerous health problems and diabetes is one of them. Under these conditions, the need for an efficient program aimed at the alteration of dietary habits as one of the possible solutions becomes evident. People who belong to the risk group of and have an increased probability of having diabetes should be provided with the information about the impact products they consume have on their health and the development of diabetes.

Wilmot and Idris (2014) in their paper also admit the tendency towards the deterioration of the situation in the given sphere. Delving into the issue, they provide the fact that the early onset of type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent with a crucial impact on individuals, healthcare, and care delivery (Wilmot & Idris, 2014). Among the risk factors that trigger the early onset, they also outline obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic factors like family history of type 2 diabetes or belonging to a black minority who are predisposed to this very disease.

Moreover, there is the tendency towards the earlier aggressive risks of diabetes appearance. The combination of these factors indicates the character of the problem that could be considered an epidemic. In this regard, they suggest the complex solution to the problem that consists both of the alteration of the dietary factors and the mode of life. Although genetic factors could hardly be eliminated, the investigators still admit the great potential of the above-mentioned actions as the possible solution to the problem.

Trying to determine the main causes for the high speed of diabetes development and its appearance among different groups of population, Gude et al. (2016) conduct a specific research that is focused on the investigation of glycemic variability in terms of demographic factors and environmental lifestyles. Using middle-aged men and women as the participants of the study, they come to the conclusion that no significant differences between men and women belonging to the same race could be found (Gude et al., 2016).

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However, such factors as age, gender, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity increased the probability of the diabetes onset significantly as they preconditioned the divergences in glycemic variability (Gude et al., 2016). Finally, aging was considered another factor promoting the deterioration of the situation related to type 2 diabetes. In this regard, the given paper demonstrates that diabetes could threaten different demographic groups, especially in case risk factors could also be discovered.

Aregbesola, Voutilainen, Virtanen, Mursu, and Tuomainen (2017) also investigate the issue and try to determine the gender differences in type 2 diabetes and factors that might impact a female or male body in various ways. Besides, the contribution of body iron is analyzed by the authors. In the course of the investigation the authors state that “a total of 201 type 2 diabetes cases were observed (males = 111 [55.2%] vs. female = 90 [44.8%], P = 0.032), and in adjusted models, males had higher odds of type 2 diabetes” (Aregbesola et al., 2017, p. 117).

This demonstrates that gender becomes a significant risk factor when cogitating about the onset of diabetes and its development. The investigators come to the conclusion that type 2 diabetes could affect both men and women; however, men are more predisposed to type 2 diabetes because of the peculiarities of body iron and endocrine profile. For this reason, approaches to treatment should be chosen depending on gender factor and other factors peculiar to male or female bodies.

Bockwoldt et al. (2016) revolve around the similar issue. Trying to determine the impact diabetes has on African Americans (AA) and its onset probability rates, they conduct a comprehensive assessment of AA communities. The authors state that representatives of this group “are disproportionally affected by type 2 diabetes and are diagnosed at an earlier age, but are less adherent to diabetes medications compared with the general population” (Bockwoldt et al., 2016). This creates a great problem for caregivers. The increased number of diabetes cases among AA men and women threatens the health of the nation as poor dietary habits and the mode of life could hardly be considered the main risk factors for the given group (Bockwoldt et al., 2016).Besides, AA population becomes extremely vulnerable to the disease, and the problem is complicated by the poor response to treatment. For this reason, the needed for an efficient approach to eliminate the threat becomes obvious.

Another qualitative study performed by Parry-Strong, Leikis, and Krebs (2013) tends to analyze the current situation in the given scheme, and the impact dietary and physical exercise interventions have one the appearance and evolution of risk factors. Using a physically active person predisposed to type 2 diabetes because of the genetic factors as the landmark for their research, investigators compared him to other participants showings to determine the impact appropriate mode of life has on a person.

In the course of the experiment they came to the conclusion that the healthy mode of life obviously improves the overall state of a patients health; however, it could not serve as the guarantee of diabetes non-appearance under the impact of other significant factors. In such a way they come to the conclusion that one intervention that includes physical activity only could not be considered efficient enough to prevent the diabetes early onset and the development of the disease within next several years (Parry-Strong et al., 2013).

The efficiency of diet or physical exercises only is also doubted by Xiang, Hernandez, and Larrison, (2015) in their investigation. Looking for the most important methods to struggle against diabetes and guarantee the elimination of risk factors, the authors compared the studies devoted to these methods and results that could be obtained in case one of the approaches are used. It turned out that their effect is not enough to guarantee that a patient will not suffer from diabetes or its complications.

For this reason, Xiang et al. (2015) insist on the usage of a complex approach that combines both appropriate diet and physical exercises to attain success and assist patients in their speedy recovery. The results of this approach turn out to be much more efficient, and patients suffering from type 2 diabetes demonstrated significant improvement of outcomes along with the better well-being and overall quality of life. In this regard, the recommendation to use only combined approaches as the way to struggle against type 2 diabetes and guarantee mitigation of the negative effect or risk factors was given.

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Hooks-Anderson, Crannage, Salas, and Shcerrer (2015) in their paper try to determine race-related disparities in diabetes spread and education, as well as the impact gender and race, might have on the development of the disease. For this reason, a cross-sectional study among 3967 patients from 14 to 89 years with diabetes and prediabetes was conducted (Hooks-Anderson et al., 2015).

In accordance with the medical records, a high percentage of AA patients suffered from type 2 diabetes and the lack of information related to the peculiarities of the disease. This fact could not but impact the state of this group health and introduce a significant problem that should be solved to guarantee the improvement of the situation and elimination of the risk factors. Additional research conducted to determine divergences between different age and gender groups showed that the outcomes between these groups differ. For this reason, a specific approach to people belonging to different demographic layers is needed.

Intervention

As it comes from the literature review, meaningful alterations in the mode of life turn out to be useful when struggling against type 2 diabetes. The given statement supports our hypothesis about the efficiency of reviewing nutrition and physical exercise patterns. For this reason, to collect the factual evidence, the following intervention could be suggested. Participants of the study are divided into two groups the control and the intervention ones. The representatives of the first group do not alter their lifestyles when the respondents belonging to the second one have to change dietary habits and exercise patterns.

The given model helps to determine the efficiency of the suggested methods by comparing the level of blood sugar of patients with prediabetes before, during, and after the program. The divergence in showings is used to make the final conclusion about the most appropriate way to struggle type 2 diabetes and how the combination of improved dietary habits with intense physical exercise might improve the state of patients health. The given approach seems the most appropriate in terms of the given setting.

Results

The data collected in the course of the intervention demonstrates that the patients belonging to the second group demonstrate much better results which is proved by blood sugar levels measured after the program. In the beginning, all respondents have similar showings peculiar to people with prediabetes. However, during the program, the divergence in data could be observed. Representatives of the control group preserved the same sugar levels with some tendency towards the gradual increase. Respondents belonging to the intervention group demonstrated the decreased blood sugar levels (see Fig 1.). After the program, the results differed significantly which could be used to make the final conclusion about the efficiency of different interventions.

Results of the Study

Average blood sugar levels
Before the program During the program After the program
Control group 119 102 91
Intervention group 111 116 119

Discussion and Action Plan

The results of the research obtained due to the suggested intervention serve as the credible evidence of the efficiency of the intervention that combines both alterations of the dietary habits along with the physical exercises. The divergences in showings between the control group and the intervention group demonstrate that better outcomes could be achieved only in case the suggested intervention method is used.

In this regard, the following plan of action could be suggested. Patients suffering from prediabetes should alter their dietary habits to exclude products with high sugar content to preserve appropriate glycemic levels. Moreover, appropriate physical exercises should be used along with the diet to attain significant decrease of blood sugar and prevent type 2 diabetes appearance and development. The plan of action should rest on the unique features of every individual and his/her state of the health. It means that the appropriate diet and physical activity should be introduced for every patient to be able to engage in the recovery process.

Limitations

The character of the study also presupposed several limitations. First of all, the number of respondents was limited. Small sampling size contributes to the lower credibility of data and introduces certain limits when investigating a suggested phenomenon. Moreover, time restrictions also limited opportunities for the enhanced investigation of the issue because of the impossibility to conduct a long-term experiment that will also assess the final results after the program finished and in different periods of time. For this reason, the further research should include a bigger number of respondents along with improved time limits to be able to assess all needed aspects and provide credible conclusions.

Conclusion

In the course of the investigation, the risk factors related to the onset of type 2 diabetes were determined and discussed. Considering the unique complexity of the situation, an efficient solution to the problem is needed. For this reason, the efficiency of dietary alterations along with physical exercises was analyzed using two groups (control and intervention ones). The results of the study proved the hypothesis about the necessity of combining these two approaches to attain improved results and preserve the state of the health of a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes. For this reason, the plan of action to improve the quality of life should include specific diet and physical activity that rest on patients peculiarities.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2017). Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 40 (Suppl. 1), S44-S47.

Aregbesola, A., Voutilainen, S., Virtanen, J., Mursu, J., & Tuomainen, T. (2017). Gender difference in type 2 diabetes and the role of body iron stores. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 54(1), 113-120. doi:10.1177/0004563216646397

Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control of type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 3, 1-8.

Bockwoldt, D., Staffileno, B., Coke, L., Hamilton, R., Fogg, L., Calvin, D., & Quinn, L. (2016). Understanding experiences of diabetes medications among African Americans living with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. doi:10.1177/1043659616651674

Gude, F., Diaz-Vidal, P., Rua-Perez, C., Alonso-Sampredo, M., Fernandez-Merino, C., Rey-Garcia, J.,… Gonzalez-Quintela, A. (2016). Glycemic variability and its association with demographics and lifestyles in a general adult population. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. doi:10.1177/1932296816682031

Hooks-Anderson, D., Crannage, E., Salas, J., & Shcerrer, J. (2015). Race and eeferral to diabetes education in primary care patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 41(3), 281-289. doi:10.1177/0145721715574604

Ley, S. H., Hamdy, O., Mohan, V., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet, 383(9933), 1999-2007.

Marks, D. (2015). Special Issue: Food, diets and dieting. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(5), 469-472. doi:10.1177/1359105315573452

Parry-Strong, A., Leikis, M., & Krebs, J. (2013). High protein diets and renal disease – is there a relationship in people with type 2 diabetes? The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease, 13(5-6), 238-243. doi:10.1177/1474651413503020

Wilmot, E., & Idris, I. (2014). Early onset type 2 diabetes: Risk factors, clinical impact and management. Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, 5(6), 234-244. doi:10.1177/2040622314548679

Xiang, X., Hernandez, R., & Larrison, C. (2015). Provider advice on exercise and diet among adults with comorbid serious psychological distress and diabetes or diabetes risk factors. The Diabetes Educator, 41(2), 185-193. doi:10.1177/0145721714567234

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StudyCorgi. (2020, December 28). Diabetes: Possible Interventions. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-possible-interventions/

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"Diabetes: Possible Interventions." StudyCorgi, 28 Dec. 2020, studycorgi.com/diabetes-possible-interventions/.

1. StudyCorgi. "Diabetes: Possible Interventions." December 28, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-possible-interventions/.


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StudyCorgi. "Diabetes: Possible Interventions." December 28, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-possible-interventions/.

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StudyCorgi. 2020. "Diabetes: Possible Interventions." December 28, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/diabetes-possible-interventions/.

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StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Diabetes: Possible Interventions'. 28 December.

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