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Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies

The article by Li et al. presents a study that reveals many aspects of in-depth research processes behind innovative technologies. The focus of the study is a type of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction residue (REAE) called okara – a pulp made of soybeans after they are processed (Li et al., 2020). In this paper, the article “Digestibility, textural and sensory characteristics of cookies made from residues of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans” by Li et al. will be summarized.

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Objectives

The paper discusses two distinct objectives that can be achieved through the presented method of research. The first set of results that is being examined is the reduction of calories from the addition of okara (Li et al., 2020). The authors note that the dietary fiber resulting from the proposed process is expected to possess properties that would be beneficial for a cookie while being less expensive to produce than regular ingredients (Li et al., 2020). Therefore, the second reason that the paper discusses is the potential use of okara for providing the maximum output for the processing plants without decreasing the quality of the resulting dough below acceptable (Li et al., 2020). It is worth noting that slightly lowered characteristics included taste and texture.

Methods

First of all, all the materials are clearly stated in the paper to allow replication of the experiment. Each product is listed alongside its origin, concentration, dosage, and consistency. The process of residues preparation is described starting with the specific method of okara acquisition. The recipe for cookies is listed, including ingredients and methods of their preparation. Six samples with different percentages of REAE in flour are brought for comparison (Li et al., 2020). Disulfide content in doughs is measured, in vitro and starch digestibility tests are conducted in a controlled environment in incubators, texture analysis is performed via a texture analyzer and a vernier caliper (Li et al., 2020).

In vitro digestibility takes into account the total starch content through the usage of different masses for each sample to eliminate differences in the rate of starch hydrolysis (Li et al., 2020). Untrained volunteers are selected from different social backgrounds to assist with sensory evaluation (Li et al., 2020). The statistical analysis is performed on three consecutive tests whose results were averaged (Li et al., 2020). Many other necessary precautions against potential inconsistencies are utilized and noted throughout the paper.

Results

The outcome of the study reveals meaningful differences in all parameters among samples. Starch hydrolysis percentage decreases with the increase of REAE, alongside glycemic and hydrolysis indexes (Li et al., 2020). There is a notable linear reduction of gluten protein per cookie (Li et al., 2020). Hardness, weight, springiness, and chewiness increase, while volunteers note lowered sweet and fat tastes (Li et al., 2020). Cookies become more crunchy and hard, further decreasing the enjoyability of the product (Li et al., 2020). Each step of the outcomes’ analysis is presented with a p-value to indicate the relationship between dependent and independent values.

Conclusions and Future Applications

In conclusion, the presented research method has revealed the potential for REAE <30% to be used for mass production. The average scores for analyzed statistics allow researchers to determine the acceptability of the product that contains such an amount of REAE is acceptable. The clarity of writing from the authors presents a convincing point that leaves no space for doubts and arguments. I found the utilized sensory evaluation methods highly valuable for their thorough calculations that highlight relationships between variables in an accurate and easy-to-read format. Moreover, the discussion part of the paper is filled with links to similar studies that support the authors’ goals and outcomes of the experiment, which gives the paper better credibility. These two research strategies will be crucial for my future research.

Reference

Li, Y., Sun, Y., Zhong, M., Xie, F., Wang, H., Li, L., Qi, B., & Zhang, S. (2020). Digestibility, textural and sensory characteristics of cookies made from residues of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans. Scientific Reports, 10(1). Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2023, January 7). Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/digestibility-textural-and-sensory-characteristics-of-cookies/

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StudyCorgi. (2023, January 7). Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies. https://studycorgi.com/digestibility-textural-and-sensory-characteristics-of-cookies/

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"Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies." StudyCorgi, 7 Jan. 2023, studycorgi.com/digestibility-textural-and-sensory-characteristics-of-cookies/.

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StudyCorgi. "Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies." January 7, 2023. https://studycorgi.com/digestibility-textural-and-sensory-characteristics-of-cookies/.

References

StudyCorgi. 2023. "Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies." January 7, 2023. https://studycorgi.com/digestibility-textural-and-sensory-characteristics-of-cookies/.

References

StudyCorgi. (2023) 'Digestibility, Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Cookies'. 7 January.

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