The first article includes literature reviews of a book that analyzes the perception of nurse long-term care from first-hand sources. The book focuses on ethical issues for specific populations to assist nursing students, educators, researchers, staff, administrators, and others who may interact with long-term care patients. The text is organized by evidence, historical reviews, case studies, and research that illustrates a substantial number of topics, with the intent to guide future direction and policy in relation to long-term care patients (Son, 2005). Some of the most important topics covered in the book include the capacity of cognitively impaired individuals, historical assessments of rules and regulations in regard to mental illness in long-term care, and the disparities faced by the elderly or minority populations in current policies. I chose this article as it addresses the issues of long-term care in communities that are especially vulnerable to inaccessibility and disparities of health care.
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The following article allowed for in-depth insight into a number of vital topics. The case studies used in the book demonstrated the ethical principles of autonomy, respect of an individual’s dignity, and the importance of achieving both when implementing long-term medical care on populations that may face disparity. Additionally, the chapter regarding the treatment of chronic illness and disability in prisons illustrates an often-overshadowed area of concern.
The review clearly illustrates a number of challenges that are posed in long-term care, some with systematic inequality that has been historically prevalent while others occur in the modern world. First, the review reveals the issues faced by marginalized groups in receiving appropriate care as well as the current shortage of healthcare professionals in long-term care facilities, and what this can signify for the future of patients, nursing professionals, staff, and administration in long-term care. The current shortage of nurses in such facilities can be seen as a crisis, according to the review, and requires significant support and improvement.
The second selected article reports on the current status of non-communicable diseases, or NCDs, worldwide. While high-income countries have been able to see a decline in NCD-related mortality rates, mainly through the reduction of cardiovascular deaths, the current progress of low-income countries is not sufficient. The current status reports that 86 countries for women and 97 countries for men will be unable to meet the sustainable development goal for the reduction of NCD-related mortality by 2030 (Thapa et al., 2020). Much of the progress seen in high-income countries has been due to a number of factors, including prevention, treatment, the decline in cigarette smoking, improved control of hypertension, use of statins, thrombolysis, and stents. I chose this article as it pertains to the implementation of long-term care in areas that require it to combat serious rates of mortality.
The article also reports that reliable evidence suggests the focus and implementation of specific services across the continuum care for NCDs, which include prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term care. Long-term care can become prevalent in the forms of primary and secondary prevention, accessible and well-equipped care and rehabilitation facilities, and research networks that address specific long-term care in low- or middle-income countries.
The challenges that are ongoing within such countries include the need for routine health check-ups and follow-up long-term care becoming an aspect of the healthcare system. Other socio-economic issues such as poverty must also be addressed to improve access to diagnoses and treatments of chronic diseases. Some advancements have been made, such as policies and outreach that attempt to curb excessive tobacco and alcohol consumption but have not been successful enough to place many countries on the track to reach the sustainable development goal for the reduction of NCD-related mortality (Bennett et al., 2020). The factors above influence the obstacles that administrations, nursing professionals, and doctors have to overcome while also outlining the risks that are likely to be prevalent in the lives of patients or their families.
Bennett, J. E. et al. (2020). NCD Countdown 2030: pathways to achieving Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4. Health Policy, 396(10225), 918-934. Web.
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Son, G. (2005). Vulnerable Populations in the Long Term Care Continuum (Vol. 5). (J. A. Maloni, Ed.). Springer Publishing.
Thapa, R., Zengin, A., & Thrift A. G. (2020). Continuum of care approach for managing non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Global Health, 10(1), 1-4.