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Document and Workflow Management


Workflows are processes associated with work processes in administration settings. The technology of workflow helps to support operational processes such as case driven processes. Workflow management system helps to ensure that information reaches the designated computer or individual at the right time (Wil van der Aalst, 2004, p. 74). Workflow management is a technology that enables processes to be intergrated or task orientation and is regarded as a mechanism that enable business processe to be managed through electronic commerce. Through workflow management, business processes can be automated using internet technology. It also ensures effective handling and managing of processes in a business through elimanating some tasks such as supervisory and improving quality and productivity. Security of a business can also be enhanced through workflow management. Workflow has three dimensions. The most important is controlflow dimension due to the nature of workflow system being formed by the process it aids (Wil van der Aalst, 2004, p. 270)

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Workflow management system oversees how information are passed from one employee to another within the business environment. It makes it easier to trace an employee in any business environment. Therefore, to ensure a smooth running of activities in a process, there should be a workflow management system in place

Who are the stakeholders?

These are those individuals, institutions or organizations that rely on the business for the fulfillment of their personal goals, and the business depends on them for legitimacy. They tend to have their own interests or demands on the resources of the business that are to be provided to the society. In other words, stakeholders can be defined as those who can be affected directly by the activities of a business and vice-verse. The stakeholders can be shareholders, management and employees, customers and suppliers, government, banks and other financial institutions etc. In any project, stakeholder analysis should be the initial step. This will enable you to know every party involved in the project and their interests. It work best in an organization with a variety of people, and therefore will help preventing conflicts caused by delays due to failure to involve key people. Stakeholders should be identified and prioritized with respect to their power or status. In a business environment, we can have the above parties to be stakeholders in the following ways:

  • Shareholders. They expect a large return from their investment into a company. This makes them the stakeholders
  • Government. Can be stakeholders because they have an interest of creating employment to its citizens. Government also has interest of taxing the employees on the income they receive as well as the business on the profits they make.
  • Management and employees. They have an interest of having better working conditions and good payment hence they are also stakeholders

Banks and financial institutions need to finance in order to earn interest. They also want to increase their deposits by having many employees opening account. This shows their stake holding capacity. Customers and suppliers can also be stakeholder because they expect favorable prices and services.

In our case process, we can identify two major stakeholders that are involved in the process. These are the government and the government employees. The government depends on its employee to offer quality services to the public and the employees depend on the government for good working condition and good pay. Citizens can also be the stakeholder because they expect quality services from the government employees since they pay tax.

Using models to describe the context of the case

A model can be developed using workflow management system which is a system that ensures efficiency in execution of business processes (Stefan & Christoph, 1996).In order to create model, Document processing is requirement in business processes. Workflow management system can be used to do document processing. A formal model, document process association model is formed and can be used to relate work units with the process. Process modeling requires information technology to support it.

Workforce modeling is a phenomenon where the need of talented employees is adequately matched with supply. Workforce modeling solution is software used to capture all the complexity of workforce modeling. In our case, we can create an interaction between responsibilities handled by each employee by configuring the responsibility handled by more than one employee. In our case for example, Chief executives and records managers can handle responsibilities such as record keeping responsibilities of the Chief executives. With proper aid of strategic planners, we can then create a record keeping responsibility and employee profile charged with these responsibilities. The user can then choose a given responsibility and determine the responsibilities that each employee is charged with. A strategic planner can have a set of methods they can use to model and analyze number of a given scenario settings. Work modeling solution can be used to solve the problem of complexity workforce modeling and producing more accurate results. This workforce modeling solution is composed of the following components;

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  • Workflow management. This helps to automate manual processes
  • Demand management. This help to track the demand for employees in a short time period(around 20 minutes)
  • Optimization engine. This component help to create complete schedules that can be optimized concurrently in different dimensions
  • Employee availability. This helps to track obligations, contractual work time and limits of each employee.
  • Employee preference. This help to track the appropriate time for employee to work

Planners through, software solutions of workforce management that is demand based, can create schedules that conforms appropriately to the actual requirement and this will enable them to achieve optimization of staffing. The solution also helps users to clearly see the contacts, agreements and responsibilities of each employee.

How to describe the process using the model

We can use a model to describe the process in our case. We should first consider and identify the employees involved in the process. These are chief executives, managers and supervisors, records manager, stakeholders and business information system owners and administrators. The second step is to consider the responsibility of each employee and where they are suppose to report about their duties. In other words, the model will show how the information flows between the employees in the process starting from the employees in least positions to the chief executives. The chief executives submit the information finally to the stakeholders who respond on the information received by giving advice concerning decision making to the chief executives. The executives in turn pass their advice to the subsequent senior most employees. The model ensures complete flow of information from one point to another.

The custodial data points

Custodial data points are points where collection and automation as well as reconciliation of data are done. Data are consolidated into a single secured source where it can be accessed easily by users. At data points the data are managed, processed and transferred to the right recipients in our case process, I can identify the following custodial data points. These are:

  1. Record managers. They have a responsibility of making record management programs and to ensure effective record keeping strategies policies and procedures
  2. All agency personnel. They have a responsibility of creating records of their daily agency business activities and ensuring that full and accurate records are made and captured into corporate. They also ensure records are protected according to policy related to privacy, confidentiality, freedom of information copyright, and contractual.
  3. Business information owners and administrators. They capture, retain and maintain full and accurate records, and to ensure records are accessible. They should also implement procedures and controls and ensure that records are protected, preserved and authentic.

Approaches for measuring and managing the efficiency of this case

The efficiency of this case can be measured using the following approaches:

Budget and Financial management

The performance of this case should be based on budget. Through budgeting performance, the agency can manage the cost and activities and of the process and ensure the process is subjected to the budget. Therefore, budgeting the process will enhance efficiency of the process and will provide incentive to control and prevent unbudgeted cost and only the necessary productive cost will be incurred:

Analysis and evaluation

The process should be evaluated and analyzed to determine its impact to the clients or citizens. The analysis and evaluation can e done on the process since the process can be expressed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Such analysis and evaluation include internal rate of return, net present value and net future value, cost-benefit analysis among others. Internal rate of return (IRR) can be used to determine the returns from the process. Cost benefit analysis compares the cost of the process with the benefits to determine if the process is economic viable. Future or the expected profitability can be obtained by use of net future and net present value.

Organization and human capital performance

Service outcomes and general performance of the process can be improved by analyzing the structures of management levels and coming up with strategic organizational structures. The managing structures should be trained on various relevant techniques, management system development, and workforce planning development among others. This will give them a broad knowledge concerning their management responsibility, thereby increasing their efficiency. This would help making the whole process efficient.

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Strategic alignment and reform

Though the desired change is important to the organization in terms of management and processes, it is also of great importance to all the stakeholders involved in the process. Therefore as these government services takes new dimensions, it is important to work with the organization in order to strategize on new missions and actions.

Strategic sourcing and acquisition

In order for the process to reduce cost the strategies on sourcing and acquisition should be developed. Decision makers should use all the necessary tools such as decision support systems to assess the expected returns from the process as well as risks involved.


Stefan, J., & Christoph, B. 1996. Workflow Management: Modeling Concepts, Architecture, and Implementation. International Thomson Computer Press. London

Wil van der Aalst, K. M. 2004. Workflow management: models, methods, and systems. MIT Press. Cambridge

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