Background and Significance of the Problem
Today, obesity is one of the most significant health problems. By the relevant statistics, more than one-third of people living in the USA (36,5%) suffer from this problem (AAFP, 2013). At the same time, it could trigger the evolution of numerous heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, cancer, etc. (AAFP, 2013). Under these conditions, the need for the investigation of the issue and intervention becomes apparent to improve the state of the health of the nation and improve the quality of peoples lives. The significance of the research issue is also evidenced by the fact that there is a tendency towards the deterioration of the situation and an increase in the number of obese people.
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Statement of the Problem and Purpose of the Study
Therefore, the main problem is that the evolution of technologies resulted in radical alterations in peoples lifestyles and behaviors (OAC, 2015). Today, the majority of individuals experience a significant lack of physical activity resulting in the occurrence of numerous problems with health and obesity is one of them. For this reason, the given study aims at the investigation of alteration in behaviors and lifestyles as one of the efficient ways to manage obesity and preserve the appropriate state of health. Another purpose of the study is to compare this intervention with bariatric surgery to determine the most potent tool.
Regarding the above-mentioned aspect of the research, the following PICOT question could be formulated:
- In patients with obesity do alterations in behavior and lifestyle that include dietary habits and physical activity compared to bariatric surgery have a better effect on the state of health in the long-term perspective?
- The given question becomes central to the investigation and establishes a particular frame that should be observed to attain credible results and compare relevant data about the interventions mentioned above.
Hypothesis: Research and Null
The project revolves around the following hypothesis:
- Radical alterations in patients behavior, dietary habits, and physical activity are the most efficient way to manage obesity and improve the quality of life.
- The hypothesis stipulated by the fact that the lack of physical exercise and wrong diets are considered leading factors that cultivate the development of problems with weight and other health issues.
Therefore, there is also a null hypothesis:
- Bariatric surgery along with pharmacological treatment remains the most efficient way to struggle with obesity and guarantee positive outcomes.
- This idea is popular among the target population which means that additional research is needed to compare and analyze both assumptions.
Taking into account the peculiarities of the research and suggested intervention, there are dependent and independent variables. Thus, as far as patients BMIs and their alterations under the impact of different factors are investigated, they become dependent variables. It is critical to note any changes that happen under the impact of the planned intervention. At the same time, alterations in behavior, physical activity, and dietary habits become an independent variable which is not altered in the course of the investigation. These variables are fundamental to the research. In this regard, their operationalization is essential for improved outcomes and the relevance of final data. Therefore, BMIs of 30 or higher should be included in the independent variable as they indicate cases of obesity. As for the independent one, it is possible to operationalize the three main aspects (alterations in behavior, physical activity, and dietary habits).
American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) (2013). Diagnosis and management of obesity. Web.
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Obesity Action Coalition (OAC) (2015). Understanding obesity: What is obesity? Web.