Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

Abstract

This topic of study is concerned with deducing the role of performance and rewards in influencing the organisational performance and overall job fulfilment among employees in Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Using a quantitative approach, the study delves into understanding the various aspects of motivation in relation to overall job satisfaction in Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Areas under consideration include the linkage between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, extent of satisfaction in the job, the perception of the managers and employees of human resources management, the association between the level of satisfaction of the employees with aspects of demography and finally the connection between motivation and satisfaction in the work environment.

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Self-administered questionnaires and interviews proved useful in data collection. The questionnaire comprised several parts with keen interest on collecting information on variables such as demographic data on age, administrative level, job title and length of service. In addition, the extent of utilisation of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, level of job satisfaction and an assessment of the perception and understanding of human resources was carried out. The researcher distributed 100 questionnaires with a return rate of 92% (92 questionnaires). To decipher the role of performance and rewards on organisational performance, the researcher conducted 10 interviews among the employees and managers.

A more significant application of extrinsic motivators was observed in the organisation when compared to intrinsic motivators. Similarly, the study found a high level of job satisfaction and understanding of human resources management in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. In addition, age, duration of service and title of job had a positive relationship in relation to aspects of job satisfaction. Limited association was found between the administrative level and job satisfaction. Finally, a strong association between motivation and the level of job satisfaction was exhibited in the company. Rewards and performance were found to positively influence performance evaluation in the company.

Introduction

Background and Significance

Considering the competition from an increasing number of companies in the present day, it is vital for a company to pursue new strategies in order to remain successful and strong in the business market. This is also achieved by attracting rare skills and raising the degree of loyalty and feeling of belonging to the organisation in order to ensure their survival for long periods. This brings us to the conclusion that, together with the advancement of technology, it is the intellectual mind (human resource) that is the basis of success in any organisation.

Human resource management (HRM) is at the heart of any organisation and should be given the highest consideration within an organisation. HRM plays a major role in the success and development of organisations besides other strategies (Mathis and Jackson, 2007, p. 45). This indicates that the labour force has a direct effect on an organisation’s performance. Human resources can be categorised into four classes. These include employment and recruitment, human resource development, performance appraisal and incentives, and relationship with management staff. Each of these sections plays a very important role in building and improving staff capabilities (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2003, p. 138).

In my opinion, performance evaluation and incentives is one of the most important posts in the Department of Human Resources, even though it can be either frustrating or stimulating (Bratton and Gold, 2001, p. 78). Through performance evaluation and incentives, an organisation benefits from increased efficiency and loyalty from its employees which in turn improves the rate and consistency of production within the organisation. Ongoing evaluation leads to constant correction culminating in improved channelling of the organisation (Wiersma, 1992, p.67). Evaluation aids in identifying employees’ strengths and weaknesses which can help to make the best use of this resource.

Based on the above, performance evaluation and incentives are important means in the development of employee performance within the organisation. Assessment of performance should follow the established procedures which are aimed at stimulating and evaluating the organisation. According to my personal experience of the business market in Saudi Arabia, a large proportion of companies neglect the aspect of evaluation. A large number of companies are mainly concerned with the profits that might be achieved. However, a lot can be achieved through planning and giving full consideration to the various aspects of the organisation (Ballon, 1993, p. 89). The role of human resources which includes performance assessment should be given more emphasis. This research attempts to study the press sector in Saudi Arabia as it is an emerging sector that is more open and spread abroad. An explanation of the meaning of human resources and performance evaluation and incentives are given. In addition, the impacts of performance appraisal and incentives on various organisations in Saudi Arabia will be evaluated.

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Research questions

The research will review the following questions:

  • Q1 What is the meaning of human resources management in Saudi Arabia?
  • Q2 What are the roles and powers of human resources management?
  • Q3 What is the meaning of performance appraisal and incentives?
  • Q4 What are the grounds and rules of performance appraisal in Saudi Arabia?
  • Q5 What kind of incentive has the greatest impact on the employee?
  • Q6 How does performance evaluation impact on the performance of an organisation?

Aims and objectives

This study will focus particularly on companies in Saudi Arabia with the objective of improving and enriching performance appraisal. This will be attained through search assessment and its impacts on organisational performance in Saudi Arabia. It will also explore the methods of evaluation and incentives in Saudi Arabia as well as identify the role of human resources management and competence in general in Saudi Arabian companies. Saudi Arabia is a developed country whose systems are in their maturing phase. The research will evaluate how performance evaluation can be used as a tool to develop the country’s economy. An exploration of whether the impact of evaluation on various organisations in the market is either positive or negative will be conducted.

Rationale / justification

Assessment of the performance of companies in Saudi Arabia has been largely neglected. This has led to low achievement of the organisations. Through this research, the researcher will show the importance of performance evaluation. Companies in Saudi Arabia have started to pay more attention to HRM but only as the name of one department among all other company departments. Without realising the importance of this administration and its branches in the development of the performance of the organisation as a whole, the researcher will try to clarify how performance appraisal and incentives are important in changing the performance of organisations.

The press sector in Saudi Arabia was chosen due to its importance to the economy. As a growing economy, a strong press sector can aid Saudi Arabia to achieve its development goals easily. Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC) was chosen as a case study as it has emerged as a strong company that has opened branches in several countries. For example, the company has opened branches in London.

Research methods

The Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC) is considered, due to the fact that it is among the largest companies in the press sector, that is, an integrated company in terms of newspaper publications, printed and distributed. The SRPC issued the Asharq Al Awsat, which was the first newspaper in Saudi Arabia. In addition, it was the first to be distributed outside the Kingdom. The company has strong authority in the press sector in the country as well as the strongest brand position. The press is service-oriented and depends highly on human resources. The attitude of workers towards their duties, their motivation and satisfaction are core to a press performance. The case study seeks to determine the relationship between human resource appraisal and workers’ morale and satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC).

The data in this research is from a sample study so as to cut cost and research time. A referendum has been used since the information required is specific and narrow. Unstructured interviews with a sample of workers in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company were used in collecting the data. Open-ended questions were used in the interview to allow detailed information. The sample of workers was obtained from company branches in Saudi Arabia. The sample size considered in the study is a hundred participants for the questionnaire. Ten participants are considered in the interviews. Four of them are managers while the rest are employees of the company. Information from the chosen region is sufficient. This research focuses on a particular group of people from which extensive information is not required. As discussed above, the sample is from the press sector in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Research and Publishing Company is the case study.

Research structure

The research structure is as follows:

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  • Chapter one: This chapter comprises the importance of the research, the target, the context of the research and research questions.
  • Chapter two: This chapter focuses on background and literature review in human resource management and how they influence performance evaluation and reward. Hypothetical relationship between reward and workers’ loyalty will is reviewed.
  • Chapter three: This chapter contains the concept of motivation and satisfaction – the motivation and satisfaction in the private sector in Saudi Arabia.
  • Chapter four: This chapter focuses on the research methodology, the objectives of the research, justification for conducting the research, design of the research and data collection. The chapter also looks into the validity of the data collected and problems faced in conducting the research.
  • Chapter five: This chapter offers an analysis of data collected in the research. The analysis is based on a conceptual structure and literature review.
  • Chapter six: This chapter details the conclusions from the research. The chapter summarizes the findings from the conducted research, compares the findings with the theories and conceptual framework and gives a stand.
  • Chapter seven: This chapter constitutes recommendations from the research. The chapter applies the findings and conclusion to human resource management in Saudi Arabia. The chapter offers a way forward towards implementing performance evaluation and rewards and how it can be used to improve employees’ loyalty and satisfaction.

Summary of the Study

The first chapter: provides a general overview of motivation, performance, rewards and job satisfaction which comprise the importance of this topic, and why the researcher was interested in it. Furthermore, the research context is defined as the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Generally, the research objectives and questions are designed in a systematic way in order to help in the examination of the motivation and job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company.

The second and third chapters provide an insight into the literature review of motivation and job satisfaction that has proved pivotal in availing different perspectives of authors in the study of the role of performance and rewards. More importantly, a variety of definitions of motivation are discussed with the divergent and concurring choices of modern and earlier authors serving as the basis of the presentation. Definitions are overly centred on factors that enhance, energise and channel human behaviour over time. Despite wide criticism of the motivation theories from many quarters of research, previous studies have denoted their unique and key role and their applicability in the modern business environment.

In addition, the chapter presents an in-depth review of the concept of job satisfaction based on dissimilar views of authors, with its related factors and its measurement. In tandem with previous studies, emphasis on the description of the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction has been covered immensely. Looking at current and past scenarios in the private sector reveals that motivation and job satisfaction have more pertinent differences than similarities with the public run utilities. With regard to Arabian culture, performance, rewards and job satisfaction are analysed and discussed to bring the overall impact to the productivity of the employees and organisational performance.

The fourth chapter covers the research methodology with particular interest in bringing out the procedures and ways that were utilised in carrying out the research thus resulting in the achievement of the objectives. Application of descriptive research is given priority with a systematic incorporation of positivist philosophy while ensuring the overall implementation of the deductive approach. A simple survey design is selected and supplemented with quantitative methods for collection and analysis of the collected data. Two sets of questionnaires were designed to be utilised in self-administration and interviews. The self-administered questionnaire was broken down to three major parts through the help of a Likert scale and was pivotal in assessing the attitudes. An open-ended questionnaire was utilised for the interview with a section of the employees and the managers. More importantly, the translation technique and the procedures used in carrying out the pilot study are explained. The study targeted a total of 100 subjects to whom a study questionnaire was administered to. In this case, 92 of the respondents completed the questionnaires successfully. Furthermore, 10 interviews were conducted with 6 employees and 4 managers. On analysis, a description of SPSS aided in the analysis of the quantitative data collected using the self-administered questionnaire while qualitative methods played a major role in compilation of the data collected from the interviews.

The fifth chapter explains the applicability of the variables in relation to the internal reliability of the instrument. An overall presentation of the descriptive statistical method for personal information of employees is given, while offering candid explanation on why the extrinsic motivators were put into practice regularly when compared to intrinsic motivators by the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. In view of the above explanations, a significantly high degree of satisfaction was reported within the ranks of the employees. Analysis of the variables denotes the existence of correlations between age, job title and length of service with job satisfaction. On the other hand, minimal or no correlation was found to exist between administrative levels in relation to job satisfaction. The study further observed a positive relationship particularly between the overall motivation and job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. More importantly, performance evaluation of the company was found to be bolstered by the introduction of incentives and rewards in the company. Performance was also enhanced by increased job satisfaction in the employees.

The sixth chapter presents the discussion of the finding in accordance with the research objectives. A presentation of the association between the study results in tandem with the literature discussed is hereby put in perspective. From the association, it was overly observed that the study findings are in concurrence with past studies that stipulate that cultural factors influence performance levels of employees thereby impacting on the organisational performance. In order to improve the organisational performance and the motivational attributes of the employees, it becomes imperative to integrate the recommendations of this study in the culture and institutional framework of the organisation.

Plan of the study

The proposed timetable for completing this research is as follows:

  • Revise literature review and proposal. Write the questionnaires and interview questions to be distributed. (July)
  • Collect information personally. May be required to go to Saudi Arabia for the distribution and collection of the questionnaires and do the interview. (August)
  • Analysis of data. (August)
  • Write the draft and deliver to the supervisor. (September)
  • Submit the ultimate draft. (September)

Literature Review

Introduction

Human resources are one of the most important resources for an organisation. It is a fact that human resource management has a great influence on the performance of an organisation. Various scholars have addressed human resource management strategies and how such strategies can be applied in various aspects of management. Diverse points of view provide great insight into human resource management.

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A highly competitive business environment calls for highly creative business strategies. In this competitive environment, human resource management is viewed as one way of gaining competitive advantage over other competitors (Skinner, 1953, p. 278). According to Huselid (1995), a competitive business environment has forced organisations to explore progressive human resource management strategies. From the author, progressive human resource practices such as employee participation, job redesign, employee empowerment, training and good employee evaluation and compensation are being used to improve organisations’ performance.

According to Delaney and Huselid (1996), human resource management has a great direct influence on the overall productivity of an organisation. According to these authors, if proper human resource management practices are used, the organisation is assured of high performance and has a higher likelihood of meeting its goals. Among human resource management practices that they identify are job analysis, training, good employee appraisal and compensation (Ichniowski, Shaw and Prennushi, 1997, p. 21).

Employees’ attitude

Attitude is a major issue in employees’ performance. Individuals’ attitudes have been studied over a long period of time and there is a variety of literature on the subject (Ajzen, 2001, p. 29). There are various definitions of attitude. Ajzen’s definition is the most popular. According to this author, attitude is the inclination to react in either a favourable or unfavourable way towards an object of attitude (Ajzen, 1982, p. 4). From literature, it is evident that attitude plays a big role in determining the social behaviour of an individual (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986, p. 533). Poor attitude towards something leads an individual to have an unfavourable reaction while good attitude motivates an individual to respond in a favourable way.

The literature shows that attitudes in workplaces are manifested in various forms. According to Liberman and Chaiken (1996), employees could show different attitudes towards various aspects in the workplace. Some of the aspects they suggest where employees show different attitudes include benefit received, work itself, supervision, hindrance to their work and other aspects (Liberman and Chaiken, 1996). According to Tosi and Mero, the attitude towards various aspects of the workplace may have a great influence on the overall performance of a company (Tosi and Mero, 2003, p.37). According to them, attitude in the workplace can be classified into two categories: attitude towards work and attitude towards barriers to work. Attitude towards work constitutes the level of workers’ motivation, satisfaction, involvement and commitment to work. On the other hand, attitude towards impediment of work constitutes the attitude towards the barriers that result from a workplace (Tosi and Mero, 2003, p. 37).

There is ambiguity with regard to understanding of attitude in different areas. The definitions of attitude differ significantly in psychology entrepreneurship marketing and innovation. Despite the differences, there is an agreement that attitude is an important factor in performance. According to O’Driscoll and Randall, employees who have positive attitude towards their work are more likely to involve themselves in their work (O’Driscoll and Randall, 1999, p. 611). According to Randall, such workers are also more likely to commit themselves in their jobs. Attitude towards work is also closely related to attitude towards an organisation. According to Armeli and Lynch, attitude towards a job (Eisenberger and Rhoades, 2001, p. 731) or a particular aspect of a company affect the general attitude towards the whole institution (Eisenberger et al., 1997, p. 813).

Human needs

Human beings have a variety of needs to be fulfilled. Lyndsay Swinton (2006) reviews how Maslow’s hierarchy of need compares to Herbergez’ theory. Maslow’s theory offers a hierarchy of needs that each individual seeks to fulfil in their lives. The hierarchy includes the psychological needs at the base of the hierarchy, need for security, social esteem and need for self-actualisation. According to Swinton, workers’ motivation and satisfaction can be fulfilled through Herbergez’s hygiene factors in workers whose need falls below esteemed needs (Swinton, 2006, para. 5). Herbergez hygiene factors include benefits, salary, job security and company policy among other basic factors. According to Swinton, dealing with employees whose needs are above esteem requires other factors, which she refers to as motivators. These motivators include employee achievement, recognition and a growth programme (Swinton, 2006, par 7).

Employees’ self-actualisation hierarchy of needs cannot be satisfied by basic compensation and rewards such as salary but requires other motivation that gives them a sense of self-worth. The relationship between these two major theories of management gives an important foundation for managing human resources and other operations in an organisation. According to Ajzen, close examination of the needs in an organisation is important for creating a reward system that is effective on employees (Ajzen, 2001, p. 31).

Managing human resources in organisations

In a research on managing knowledge in organisations, Kridan and Goulding emphasise the importance of managing knowledge in the organisations. According to these authors, proper management of knowledge can assist any institution to be more competitive. They stress the importance of a performance evaluation and reward system that takes into consideration not only the psychological needs of the organisation’s employees but also their higher needs. According to Kridan and Goulding (2006, p. 17), human resources are central to banking institutions and should be given a lot of attention. They state that good knowledge management can help to improve decision making in an organisation, improve relationships between employees and customers, improve value to customers and motivate innovations that can improve the value of services.

The press is service based. Being service based, the interaction of press employees with customers forms the foundation of the service. Poor motivation in employees can lower services and, in consequence, have a negative effect on any institution. In a research on the banking sector in India, Sureshchandar, Anantharaman and Rajendran give an insight into factors that affect quality of services in banking institutions (2002, p. 185). According to these authors, there is a big difference in how different banks apply quality systems – banks in India can be divided into three groups depending on how they perceive total quality service in their operations.

Although human resources are among the most important resources for the success of any organisation, they are frequently not accorded the importance they require. According to Barney and Wright, decisions by some organisations often contradict the fact that human resources are an important asset to an organisation (Barney and Wright, 1997, p. 19). As an important asset to organisations, human resources should be managed in a way that brings about benefits to the organisation. According to Barney and Wright, giving human resources the attention that they require can help to increase the competitive advantage of an organisation. They stress that organisations should manage human resources with equal importance as is given to other resources.

Applications of various human resource management practices increase the competitive advantage of an organisation. Huselid emphasises the importance of using high performance work practices in an organisation (Huselid, 1995, p. 639). According to this author, high performance work practices include incentive compensation, comprehensive employee recruitment, performance management, involvement programmes and training help to increase employees’ competence. In addition, these practices help to enhance employee motivation and loyalty. According to Huselid (1995, p. 951), the result of applying high performance work practices is high employee retention as well as reducing low-performing employees.

Employees’ compensation and reward

Employee appraisal, compensation and rewards have a great influence on employee motivation. In an article on compensation motivation, Thomas Catanzaro gives various effects of compensation on workers’ motivation. He asserts that compensation has a great influence over motivation in employees (Catanzaro, 2004, para. 2). Catanzaro discusses the role of various aspects of compensation in motivation of employees. He considers the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic compensation on workers’ motivation and loyalty and satisfaction. According to him, the kind of compensation can have either a positive or a negative effect on an organisation. He stresses that monetary value should not be the only motivator but non-monetary motivators should be considered as well.

Accordingly, compensation differs in different countries. According to Chiu, Luk and Tang (2002, p. 78), base salary, year-end bonuses, cash allowances, merit pay, profit sharing and mortgage loans are the major motivators in Hong Kong.

Reward and recognition can be major factors in motivating employees and improving performance and loyalty to an organisation (Chiu et al., 2002, p. 81). According to Milne, team-based incentives can be used to influence employee motivation and performance (Milne, 2007, p. 156). In addition, according to the author, promotion and wages influence employee motivation positively when properly used. Fair promotion and wages, according to a comparison on strength and weakness, is a major factor in employee motivation and loyalty and satisfaction. According to this comparison, fair compensation and promotion improve performance more than levered compensation (Milne, 2007, p. 157).

According to Takahashi (2006, p. 79), the motivating elements of employees should be considered before considering using rewards. However, according to the comparison, the motivational preferences of employees vary over time. Wiley (1997, p. 138) claims that monetary rewards to employees create the message that an organisation appreciates contributions from its employees.

Conclusion

From the literature review, it is evident that human resource management is one of the major determinants of an organisation’s performance. Human resources management techniques such as recruitment, training, evaluation, compensation and rewards have direct influence on organisation performance. Ability to apply these techniques for the benefit of an organisation constitutes good human resource management.

Motivation and Job Satisfaction

Introduction

Employees’ motivation and satisfaction in the job are some of the factors that determine the success of an organisation (Harrell, 1958, p. 85). Motivation and satisfaction while working are especially important in the press industry. Employees in a press company have to be highly motivated for them to be involved in the required task of searching for information, reporting and in some cases being involved in life threatening situations. Another aspect in this field is that employees have to be able to find job satisfaction in their work for them to be productive. This chapter will review the concepts of motivation, job satisfaction, motivation theories, relationship between motivation and aspects of job satisfaction. The researcher will also review other studies and scholarly publications on motivation and job satisfaction particularly in Saudi Arabia.

Motivation as a concept

Employee motivation is an important aspect of management. Although motivation is widely talked about in management, its level of understanding is limited with its practice fairing poorly (Locke and Latham, 2004, p. 307). As an abstract concept, motivation involves various strategies and may give different outcomes at different times. Although there is agreement that motivation is important, there is disagreement on the best way to motivate individuals. A motivation strategy that works for a certain individual or group of individuals does not necessarily work on other individuals. Motivating workers is mostly a challenging task (Vecchio, 1991, p. 108; Statt, 1994, p. 68). One of the main reasons that make workers motivation challenging is the fact that different individuals respond differently to motivation actions.

Despite different response to motivation, many scholars agree that creating a positive working environment is the most effective way of motivating employees (Buera and Glueck, 1979; Locke and Latham, 2004, p. 273; Kadushin and Kulys, 1995, p. 973). It is also widely accepted among researchers on workers that high workers’ motivation leads to high productivity (Buera and Glueck, 1979, p. 79; Cook and Hunsaker, 2001, p. 103). Halepota (2005, p. 37) asserts that although some level of workers’ motivation can be achieved through appropriate steps, it is very difficult to motivate all workers as different individuals respond differently to motivation actions. Although he agrees that motivation is challenging to achieve, he recommends it over authority (Bobic and Davis, 2003, p. 413; Fincham and Rhodes, 1999, p. 276).

He explains that although use of authority can influence behaviour, motivation is a better alternative as it influences behaviour in a less threatening manner. Arnold (1988, p. 892) explains that what is required in motivating workers is quality of action rather than the number of steps (Arnold et al., 2005, p.137; Kadushin and Kulys, 1995, p. 981). Locke and Latham (2004, p. 367) give a deeper explanation of motivation by saying that it is achieved through external and internal factors that act as incentive to a desired result. They explain that motivation influences direction, duration and intensity of an action. In the workplace context, they explain, workers’ motivation influences the way they use their skills and abilities and affects productivity.

A better understanding of the concept of motivation can only occur by evaluating the origin of the term ‘motivation’. Kreitner and Kinicki (2007, p. 371) explain that the terminology ‘motivation’ has its origin in the Latin word ‘motive’. This word has a meaning ‘to move’. Borrowing from the Latin word, motivation can be understood as a “psychological process that arouses and directs goal-directed behavior” (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2007 p. 207). Robbins (1998), as cited in Ramlall (2004, p. 53) defines workers’ motivation as their willingness to make an effort towards organisational goals as they strive towards their individual goals.

Despite the different ways in which various scholars view motivation, there are common aspects on which they agree. According to Mitchell (1982), there are four common aspects of motivation. He posits that motivation is mostly described and individual, intentional, multifaceted and that it determines behaviour (Mitchell, 1982, p. 81; Berl and Williamson, 1987, p. 57; Porter, Bigley and Steers, 2003, 307). Borrowing from these four common aspects, Mitchell defines motivation as “the degree to which an individual is willing to engage in a specified behavior” (Mitchell, 1982, p. 82).

The various definitions given to the term ‘motivation’ send light into the meaning of the concept (Berl et al., 1984, p.91). Steers et al. (2004) posit that the various definitions have three common aspects. Kinicki et al. (2002) are of the opinion that motivation is concerned with factors that boost and direct positive behaviours over time. Existing theories of employees’ motivation try, in one way or the other, to explain how the factors relate with each other to determine organisational behaviour.

Motivation Theories

Motivation is a widely studied subject. Various theories of motivation try to explain how individuals are motivated and aspects that lead to motivation (Sim, 1990, p.158). Although there are various theories of motivation, the theories can be narrowed down to two major categories. The first category is content theories. These theories are mainly concerned with human needs and the way in which individuals satisfy these needs. The theories describe the nature of the needs and the aspects that motivate individuals. A common motivation theory under this category is hierarchy of needs brought forward by Maslow (Wilson and Madsen, 2008, p. 51). The second category of motivation theories is process theories. These theories are mainly concerned with aspects that initiate direct and sustained behaviour. Instead of focusing on the goals of certain workplace behaviour, the theories are concerned with the actual process of motivation (Bettencourt and Brown, 1997, p. 217).

According to Mullins (2007), Vroom’s expectancy theory is a classical and holistic example of process theory. Process theories are more dynamic in nature when compared to content theories (Kreitner &Kinicki, 2007). Theories of motivation are important in explaining organisational behavior. The theories attempt to distinguish factors that can, either positively of negatively, affect workplace behaviour (Wilkinson et al., 1986). According to the researchers, motivation theories are mainly concerned with the way in which workers react to other individuals and other stimuli in the workplace environment. Both categories of theories of motivation are very important to managers as they play a big role in the determination of organisational behaviour (Gibson et al, 2003).

Although the theories of motivation provide great insight into the subject, there are various criticisms to theories while they are not wholly conclusive (Gibson and Klein, 1970). In some cases, alternative findings that contradict some of theories are found. Despite the reservations, the theories of motivation provide an important foundation for understanding the subject (Mullins, 2007).

Job Satisfaction as a concept

The concept of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has a high influence and impact on an individual behaviour and productivity in the workplace (Weaver, 1980, p. 117). The concept however, is complex and cannot be easily explained. According to McCormick and IIgen (1987, p. 89), job satisfaction has several facets that include, nature of work, remunerations, company or opportunities for development (Saal and Knight, 1988, p. 76; Fox, Dwyer and Ganster, 1993, p. 672). The authors define the concept as various attitudes of workers and their response to their jobs (Wisniewski, 1990, p. 71; Brown and McIntosh, 2003, p. 78).

To show the close relationships between workers’ attitude and job satisfaction, Robbins and Judge (2008) explain that people mainly refer to job satisfaction when they speak about employee attitude (Robbins and Judge, 2009; Gazioglu and Tansel, 2006, p. 1476). Moreover, Mullins (2007) reinforces the concept by denoting job satisfaction as more of an internal state of attitude. Locke and Latham (2004, p. 367) refer to job satisfaction as “pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job value” (Milbourn and Dunn, 1976, p. 35; Fernandes, Awamleh, 2006, p. 87). Evans (1998) assert that achievement of job satisfaction occurs only when individuals’ need are fulfilled. On the other hand, Salancik and Pfeffer (1977) understand job satisfaction to refer to correspondence between an individual’s needs and characteristics of the job.

Job satisfaction is concerned with the overall individual feeling about his or her job. According to Armstrong (2006), favourable attitude toward one’s jobs implies that such an individual has job satisfaction while negative attitude implies job dissatisfaction. Many factors determine job satisfaction. According to Moyle et al. (2003), personality has great influence on job satisfaction. Moyle et al. (2003) say that jobs are multifaceted; an individual could be pleased with one aspect while he dislikes another aspect of the same job.

Connection between Motivation and Job Satisfaction

There is a close association between workers’ motivation and their job satisfaction. According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2007), this relationship is very important in determining the success of managerial roles. In a meta-analysis involving 9 studies and 1,739 workers, Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) found a positive relationship between these two important management aspects. According to the findings, a positive relationship exists between supervision and motivation of the workers. The researchers thus advise managers to consider their behaviours as they influence workers job satisfaction. They advise that, by taking positive steps, managers can progressively enhance employee motivation.

Mullins (2007) concurs that there is a relationship between motivation and job satisfaction but says that the link between them is not clear. He says that job satisfaction can be linked qualitatively or quantitatively to an individual’s feelings of achievement. He posits that job satisfaction plays a significant role in determining workers’ motivation and performance (Westbrook, 1982, p. 196). A clear-cut connection between motivation and job-satisfaction is notable by looking at the content theories of motivation. Herzberg’s (1959) theory considers the effect of ‘hygiene’ and ‘motivators’ and job satisfaction. By considering the complexity of work motivation, process theories of motivation show a deeper relationship between motivation and satisfaction and their influence on performance (Edwards et al. 2008, p. 447; Okapara, 2006, p. 78).

Tietjen and Myers (1998) say that the basic differentiating aspect of Herzberg’s theory is the intrinsic level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the factors. Deducing for Herzberg’s theories, motivators can be understood as the factors that contribute to long-term satisfaction (Clark, Oswald and Warr, 1996, p. 35). According to Edwards et al. (2008), motivators are the aspect that lead to a positive attitude toward one’s job and help employees achieve self-actualisation. Self-actualisation is in fact the ultimate object in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It is implied that good performance is determined by the presence of these motivators. Herzberg however insists that dissatisfaction is not necessarily caused by absence of motivators. In the same way, although absence of motivators may cause dissatisfaction, their presence does not necessarily promote job satisfaction.

Motivation factors may have different outcomes in different contexts. Thiedke (2004) observed that although a positive working environment, good interpersonal relationships and favourable remuneration are motivators, they could as well lead to dissatisfaction (Arnolds and Boshoff, 2002, p. 104; Fatt, 2002, p. 39). He concludes that real motivation does not result from external factors but from feelings of achievement, recognition, responsibility and other such factors.

Borrowing from these arguments over motivation and job satisfaction, the researcher will study the relationship and impact of them both on Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC) employees.

Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

Workers’ motivation and job satisfaction are important factors in the growth of any economy. An important study on the nature of job satisfaction and motivation in Saudi Arabia is that conducted by Maghrabi and Hayajneh (1993). Using a survey of 120 managers from various organisations in the country, the researchers obtained an interesting outcome. The study demonstrated a large variance between motivation and satisfaction in males and females (Maghrabi and Hayajneh, 1993; Griffin and Moorhead, 2007, p.876). It was clear that males felt more satisfied with their jobs than females.

The study also showed that Bedouin managers were highly motivated and had high job satisfaction as compared to non-Bedouin managers. Bedouin managers also demonstrated higher loyalty to their companies relative to non-Bedouin managers. Contrary to expectation, the study showed that managers had very little influence on the motivation of other employees (Bhuina, Al Shammari and Al Jefri, 2001, p. 97). Instead, the study showed general motivation and job satisfaction in the country was influenced by the country’s economy.

Improving performance in organisations is one of the major challenges encountered by Saudi Arabia’s managers. This is because of work practice and cultural issues that have a negative effect on employee performance. One common observation in Saudi Arabia’s workplaces is that individuals are motivated more by position and status than other factors. The trend where employees are motivated by position and status is a major challenge in maintaining skilled employees in an organisation. According to Bryman and Bell (2007), most Saudis are brought up in luxury and consequently are not interested in maintaining low ranks (Idris, 2007). Idris also says that the culture of organisation is a contributing factor to motivation and job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia.

Culture and religion have an influence on motivation and job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia (Bjerke and Al Meer, 1993, p. 306; Martin, 2001, p. 89). Yasin and Stahl (1990) assert that most Arab managers are motivated more by affiliation rather than power. They relate this trend to cultural family relationships and, in the larger aspect, to religion (Hasan, 2003, p. 54). Comparing American expatriate managers and Saudi Arabian managers using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, At-Twaijri (1989) observed a great difference. While American expatriates were much concerned with self-actualisation, Saudi Arabian managers were observed to be more concerned with social needs. This observation was a confirmation of an earlier study that had shown that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs depended on culture (Wahba and Bridwell, 1973, p. 79; Nunro, Schumaker and Carr, 1997, p. 78). Ali and Al-Shakhis (1989) reported that Saudi managers obtained job satisfaction from their jobs, workgroups and supervisory roles.

Comparing job satisfaction motivation needs in the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia, Al Noeim (2002) noted insightful differences. In the study that involved 154 managers from the United Kingdom and 406 from Saudi Arabia, Al Noeim found that motivation needs such as need for affiliation, achievement, dominance and autonomy did not have significant influence on job satisfaction of managers (Bilgic, 1998, p. 127; Brewer and Wilson, 1995, p. 143). However, the study showed great difference in motivation and job satisfaction when demographic variable were factored. Job satisfaction and loyalty in Saudi Arabia is relatively low as compared to other regions. According to Bayt (2008), Saudi Arabia can be ranked second lowest in job satisfaction and loyalty in the gulf region.

Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Private Sector

Motivation and job satisfaction differ significantly in public and private sectors in various countries. According to Jurkiewicz et al. (1998), some studies show differences while others show similarities. For instance, Mitchell (1982) found no difference in motivation and job satisfaction between public and private sectors in the United States. Bogg and Cooper (1995) could not find significant difference in motivation but found employees’ job satisfaction to be slightly higher in the private sector.

Various researchers find significant difference in motivation between private and public sectors (Wright, 2001; Rainey and Bozeman, 2000; Roelen, Koopmans and Groothoff, 2008, p. 157). Cherniss and Kane (1987) found motivation and job satisfaction to be higher in the private sector than in the public sector. Level of remuneration is found to be one of the major motivators in the private sector (Khojasteh, 1993; Jurkiewicz, et al., 1998, Blunt and Spring, 1991). Other researchers find experience is another factor that leads to job satisfaction in the private sector (Rainey, 1979; Solomon, 1986; Rhinehart et al. 1969).

Testing Herzberg’s theory, Maidani (1991), found that employees in both sectors emphasised intrinsic motivators. In addition, investigating job satisfaction in Florida, Maidani found that extrinsic motivators were lower in the private sector as compared to the public sector. Researching the same subject in the United States, Khojasteh (1993) found that intrinsic motivators equally motivated managers from both sectors (Falcone, 1991, p. 132; Robertson, Smith and Cooper, 1992, p. 216). In a study in Belgium, Buelens and Broeck (2007) on the other hand found extrinsic motivators to have less effect on employees in the public sector than they had on employees in the private sector. The outcome of the studies on motivation and job satisfaction in the private and public sectors varies across countries.

Measurement of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction can be measured in various ways. According to Ribeaux and Poppleton (1978), behavioural intentions, feelings and beliefs can be used to measure attitudes. Although there are many methods that can be used to measure job satisfaction, use of questionnaires is the most common approach. Questionnaires are preferred to other methods since they are relatively cheap and require less time (Spector, 1997; Lincoln and Kalleberg, 1985, p. 56). According to McKenna (1994), use of rating scales is common in evaluating job satisfaction. Likert scaling and differential tests are most common and preferred scaling techniques (Rollinson, 2005, p. 97; Kopelman, Prottas and Davis, 2008, p. 76). Use of rating scales to evaluate job satisfaction leads to various advantages and disadvantages. Some of the merits include short required time, ability to phrase questions in a common language, ability to predetermine the range of responses, and that the method can lead to analysis of problems at hand and lead to solutions. Disadvantages of the method include the fact that some respondents may give misleading information, data collected can be influenced by the way in which the questions are structured, and outcomes can be influenced by attitudes other than facts (McKenna, 1994; Schneider and Alderfer, 1973, p. 67).

Conclusion

Employees’ motivation and job satisfaction is poorly evaluated in Saudi Arabia. Despite this, available literature from the region shows that motivating employees is a major challenge to Saudi managers. There is limited research on job motivation and satisfaction in the press industry especially in Saudi Arabia, so the literature review has focused on the subject of a broader perspective and in the context of Saudi Arabia. The literature review provides a strong foundation for the study on motivation and job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia.

Research Methodology

Introduction

This section constitutes various research methods including the method that the researcher used in this study. Research philosophy in general will be explained in this section. This includes the research philosophy that was adopted by the researcher in conducting this study. After explaining the research philosophy adopted, the research design and methods that constitute those used by the researcher will be described. An overview of the questionnaire, the major data collection method in this study, will be explained. Sampling method, translations and pilot study will then be described. In the final part, the procedures for data collection and those for data analysis will be described.

Research Methodology

Research activities are diverse, making it important to classify business research in various categories (Zikmund, 2003). Zikmund (2003) explains that categorising research can be done either by function or by technique. Among research types include experiments, observational studies and surveys. Categorizing business research by purpose of study enables one to understand how the nature of the study influences the research method adopted. The three main types of research and the nature and purpose of the study include:

Exploratory Studies

The main objective of exploratory studies is to uncover or clarify the nature of a problem. It is mainly used in problems that are not clear. This method helps in understanding the nature or dimensions of a problem. In essence, this type of study does not aim at coming up with an action plan but only aims at providing information for analysing a situation.

Descriptive research

This type of research aims at providing a description of a phenomenon or population. Apart from providing an explanation of a phenomenon, descriptive research aims at answering what, who, how and where questions. Although this type of research is common, it evokes various criticisms. Blumberg et al. (2005) say that the main drawback of this type of research is that it fails to provide an explanation on how the observed variables interact as they are observed. Despite such drawbacks, this type of research is popular for its adaptability across different disciplines.

Descriptive research is adopted in this study to obtain the opinions concerning performance evaluation, motivation and job satisfaction in Saudi Research and Publishing Company employees.

Causal Research

The core objective of this kind of research is to establish the relationship between cause and effect in research variables. In use of this method, it is common for the expected relations to be described. Examples of this kind of research include studies to establish relationships between price and advertisement or packaging and number of sales. Such studies would show how some variables such as advertisement and price would influence other variables such as number of sales.

Research Philosophy and Approach

Research philosophy stretching across various fields is dependent on how researchers view the development of knowledge. The two major views on the process of research are phenomenology and positivism. Although they are different, both of them contribute highly to development of knowledge on management. Positivism research philosophy is borrowed from natural science and is based on assumptions that the social world exists externally and should be viewed objectively. From a positivism approach, a researcher is considered independent and takes the role of an observant analyst.

Phenomenology research principles hold that research methods from natural science cannot be successfully used in social science researches. They advocate for a different approach, which claims that the social world is skewed and that it can be constructed. This philosophy considers the researcher as part of the research as research is driven by the individual interests of the researcher (Blumberg et al., 2005). Saunders et al. (1999) identify two approaches to research. The approaches constitute deductive and inductive approaches. They explain that survey methodology can be viewed as a deductive approach based on positivism while ethnographic observational study can be considered as an inductive approach based on phenomenology research philosophy.

This research study is geared towards individual behaviour towards performance evaluation and motivation and their effect on job satisfaction in Saudi Research and Publishing Company employees. The study aim is to test various theories of motivation as described in the literature review. Considering this, a positivist philosophy is assumed while a deductive approach is used.

Research Design vs. Research methods

Whereas research design entails a framework that allows for the collection and analysis of data, in contrast, research methods are the actual techniques that are used in data collection (Bryman and Bell, 2007). Research design can constitute:

Experimental design

Although widely used in social science in modern days, this design has its roots in natural sciences. The design requires a researcher to be able to manipulate conditions in order to acquire desired results (Saunders et al., 1999). Considering that the researcher was not able to manipulate conditions of the study, this design is not used in the study.

Cross-sectional or social survey design

This research design aims at obtaining information from various variables in a research context. The variables mainly constitute different groups of people that are identified for the study. The main aim of this design is usually to look into how various factors differ (Hussey and Hussey, 1997).

Cross-sectional or social survey design is most appropriate for the study. It provides the researcher with an appropriate approach for investigating the relationship between performance evaluation, motivation and job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. The design is appropriate for it does not require any manipulation of variables but is suitable for a descriptive research.

Longitudinal design

The objective of this design is to investigate the dynamics on a research subject. It is achieved by examining a particular research issue on a particular group of people several times in order to highlight the changes. This design is not appropriate for this study considering the nature and aim of the study.

Case Study Design

An explorative research focuses on a single instance of the subject of interest (Bryman and Bell, 2007; Lam, Zhang and Baum, 2001, p. 126). According to Bryman and Bell (2007), in a case study it is better to use a qualitative study. The approach was found not appropriate for the objective of this study. There are two major categories of research studies: qualitative and quantitative research. According to Hussey and Hussey (1997), quantitative approach is objective, focusing on obtaining measurements of the phenomenon. They also posit that the qualitative approach is subjective because it focuses on scrutinizing and replicating a variety of viewpoints of human activities. Because of its nature, the quantitative approach requires that a deductive approach is employed in creating a connection between theory and research outcomes.

Quantitative methods are adopted for this study. According to Bryman and Bell, this approach moves from outcome to conclusion by the use of various logical steps. The approach aims at quantification of outcome, which is assigning figures to outcome.

Questionnaire

According to Hussey and Hussey (1007), a questionnaire is a collection of clearly outlined questions, which enable a researcher to collect the desirable information or data from a target(s). Questionnaires should be able to obtain reliable data on the topic on interest. According to Saunders et al. (1999), precise data is required for a researcher to achieve research objectives.

Questionnaires are supposed to meet certain attributes to allow for collection of appropriate data. For instance, in order to introduce the research topic to the targets, Hussey and Hussey (1997) recommend that a good questionnaire should comprise of a cover letter or an introductory statement. Moreover, the cover letter or the introductory statement increases the validity of the feedback because it directs the respondents on how they should answer the questions. Furthermore, Hussey and Hussey (1997) recommend that the content of questionnaires should be numbered besides containing the necessary instructions. These important considerations were considered by the researcher in preparation of the questionnaire in order to ensure success in data collection.

Question design and rating scales

Marshall (2002) asserts different types of questions can be used in a questionnaire. According to him, the various types of questions include open questions, closed questions and multiple-choice answers. Each type of questions has its merits and drawbacks. Advantages of open questions are that respondents are not limited in their responses and are free to offer their opinions. However, the data collected using this method may be difficult to analyze. Despite that closed questions allow for efficiency in collection data, they are disadvantageous in that they limit responses. Therefore, this case utilizes both questions mainly because of their appropriateness to the objectives, methodology and the type of case considered.

According to Zikmund (2003), the Likert scale is the most common method used in measuring attitudes. He explains that this method is preferred because of its ease of use. By using this method, respondents choose their response from a set of alternatives. To evaluate attitudes of employees on the subject, the set of alternatives may constitute, agree, strongly agree, uncertain and disagree.

A Likert scale was used in the study since it is useful in measuring attitude and easy to complete and analyse.

The questions for the questionnaire were prepared in consultation with the supervisor and borrowing from previous studies. Interview questions were divided into two: seven for managers and six for employees. The personally designed questionnaires had three major parts. The first part constituted multiple choices and was used to collect basic demographic information of the respondents such as age, administrative level, job title and number of years served. The second part of the questionnaire comprised eighteen elements that investigated the use of motivators in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Item number eighteen was open to allow respondents to give their ultimate opinion on the subject. The other seventeen items used a five-point scale. The third part of the questionnaire aimed at collecting opinions on levels of job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Seventeen items were used in this section while a five-point scale was also used.

Interviews

Bryman and Bell (2007) explain that an interview is a more personal form of data collection as compared to questionnaires. The interviewer is able to work directly with the respondent on the subject of the research topic. There are various ways of conducting an interview. Personal interview, where the interviewee meets face to face with the interviewer, is the most common form of interview. The other form of interview is the telephone interview. Bryman and Bell (2007) categorise interviews into structured, unstructured and semi-structured interviews. Structured interviews are interviews where the interviewer has well-defined questions that are used for the interviews. In unstructured interviews there are no defined questions but rather topics to be discussed. Bryman and Bell (2007) assert that unstructured interviews are mostly informal. Semi-structured interviews involve a list of questions that are supplemented by follow-up questions. According to Bryman and Bell (2007), in semi-structured interviews the interviewer uses a list of questions that provide the general structure of the interview but the order of questions could vary from one interview to another.

According to Bryman and Bell (2007), there are various advantages of using interviews as a form of data collection. They explain that the interviewer is able to clarify issues from the respondents. In a personal interview, the interviewer is able to observe a non-verbal response that can help in drawing conclusions. Interviews allow the interviewer to seek clarifications from the respondent. Bryman and Bell warn that interviews are time consuming as well and resource intensive.

Semi-structured interviews were used in the research. A series of questions were prepared in order to guide the interviewer. Follow-up questions and clarifications were sought.

Translation Techniques

When research is conducted in a place where a different language is used then translation is required. Zhikun and Fungfai (2007) advise that techniques used in translation should meet certain conditions. They assert that translations should be reliable, have good level of validity and also meet conditions for semantic, conceptual and normative equivalence with the source (Zhikun and Fungfai, 2007, p. 132). Several techniques for translation can be adopted. The techniques include parallel blind technique, back translation, and customized direct translation. In this research, the translation/back/translation technique was adopted. In the first step of this technique, a bilingual person translates an item from the original language to the target. A comparison of translated and original items is made. If there is a wide difference in meaning then another direct translation is conducted.

This technique is used to translate the questionnaires into Arabic since the research study is based in Saudi Arabia where Arabic is the main language.

Pilot Study

This entails the preliminary study conducted prior to the main study involving data collection. According to Copper (2003), the developed questionnaire should undergo prior testing before it is used for data collection. This enables the researcher in gauging the simplicity and setbacks of the questionnaire and the method to be used in the main study.

In this case, the pilot study was employed in testing the appropriateness of the questionnaire in the main study. To achieve this, some employees of the Saudi Research and Publishing Company were used in the Pilot study whereby they were supposed to answer the questions in the Questionnaires. This was aimed at assessing whether the questionnaire contained any ambiguities and mistakes that could compromise the main study.

Sampling

Research Population

According to Zikmund (2003), the first step in sampling is to identify target population. It target population in groups of people that have common feature relative to research study.

The target population for this study was Employees from Saudi Research and Publishing Company.

Selecting a Sample

The aim of sampling is to obtain some element of population for study. The main advantages of sampling include lower costs and less time required for the whole research process in addition to the increased accuracy and precision of the research findings. Besides, Hussey and Hussey (1997) note that accurate and effective sampling marks the beginning of a successful research study. They provide some criteria for a good sample. According to them, a good sample should ensure all members of a population have equal chance of participation in the sample, sample should have sufficient members and that sample should not lead to biased result. These conditions for good sampling were considered in the study.

Sample size

According to Cooper (2003, 190), the size of a sample should be sufficient to give reliable results. He gives two conditions that each sample should fulfil. A sample size of 100 for the questionnaire respondents was chosen, with 10 respondents for the interviews, 4 of whom were managers while the rest were other employees in the company. More employees were chosen since they are directly affected by policy undertaken by their management.

Table 1 : Questionnaire Response Rate.

Questionnaire Number Percentage
Distributed Questionnaires 100 ______
Returned Questionnaires 92 92%
Total 92 92%

Table 2: Interviews Response Rate.

Interviews Number Percentage
Distributed Interviews 10 ______
Returned Interviews 10 100%
Total 10 100%

Data Collection procedure

Cooper (2003) says that a researcher has various options to use in obtaining information from respondents after deciding to use sampling. He says that various types of surveys can be used in data collection. The types of surveys include personal interviews, self-administered surveys and telephone interviews.

For this study, self-administered survey was used for data collection.

Explaining self-administered surveys, Bryman and Bell say that a self-completion questionnaire refers to questionnaires that the respondent fills without assistance from a researcher. There are various ways through which self-administered questionnaires can be used, including mail or postal questionnaire.

Questionnaires for the study were sent to relevant individuals for filling in. An employee from the Saudi Research and Publishing Company offered to assist in the distribution. The questionnaire was emailed to the SRPC employee, who distributed them accordance to given procedures. Follow up was made to ensure success of this important stage. After the questionnaires were filled in, they were returned by posting.

Bryman and Bell (2007) warn that surveys conducted through the use of postal questionnaire lead to lower response. They consider this as the major drawback of using this method. They advise that the researcher should make all possible effort not to limit the response. They propose that researchers should clearly explain the purpose of the research in order to inspire many individuals to participate. They also advise that the questionnaire should be as short as possible and presented in an attractive layout to increase participation.

This advice was considered in the preparation and distribution of the questionnaires for the study in order to guarantee success.

Data Analysis

After data is collected, it needs to be analysed in order for it to provide interpretable information. Bryman and Bell (2007) assert SPPS is the most commonly used computer tool for data analysis.

The researcher used SPPS for analysis of data collected.

Conclusion

This chapter presents an elaborate overview of the research methods and justification of the protocols selected for the study. From the discussions above, it is notable that the researcher employs a descriptive approach in the study while maintaining a positivistic research philosophy. In addition, due to the characteristics of this study, a social approach was used in the current case. The quantitative approach was also adopted for the study. For data collection, a questionnaire was used. Questionnaires had three parts, which were mainly made up of closed questions. Self-administered data collection was adopted while data collected was analysed using SPSS.

Result and Analysis

Introduction

The findings from the interview and questionnaires are presented and analysed in this chapter. The focus is on the role of performance and rewards on the overall organisational performance and the employee satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC). The chapter is divided into sections with each section providing definitive and clear-cut aspects of the findings derived from the analysis. To start with, the first section in this chapter describes the internal reliability of the instrument and variables used in deducing the collected data. Secondly, the chapter presents the descriptive statistics used to represent the demographic and personal particulars of the participants in the study. The number of targeted employees in the sampling was 100 for the self-administered questionnaire, where 92 fully completed questionnaires were returned. Furthermore, 10 interviews were conducted, with 6 employees and 4 managers. Description of the analysis of the quantitative data from the self-administered questionnaire and qualitative data from the interviews is presented in this chapter. Subsequently, analysis occurs in tandem with the research questions is undertaken. The process used in the analysis of the findings is presented in figure 1:

Steps of Analysis.
Figure 1 : Steps of Analysis.

Instrument Internal Reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha)

To ensure that the questionnaire and the variables met the required parameters of internal reliability, it became imperative to utilise the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency in the study. Pallant (2007) noted that Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has become the preferred indicator especillay in the measurement of internal consistency. The indicator asserts that the scale should be above 0.7 in an ideal position.

Variables

Table 2 presents the alpha values for the variables applied in the questionnaire. It is worth noting that the reported alpha value of 0.900 is within the acceptable levels.

Table 3: Cronbach’s alpha for all Variables.

Reliability Statistics
Value for Cronbach’s Alpha Number of Items
0.900 34

Motivational variables

The alpha values of the motivational values applied in the latter sections of the data collection tools is presented in Table 3. The reported alpha value of 0.810 is acceptable since it falls within the range of being higher than 0.700.

Table 4: Cronbach’s alpha for Motivation Variables.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.810 17

Satisfaction variables

Table 4 presents the reliability statistics denoting the alpha value of 0.901, which represents the satisfaction variables in the latter part of the study tool. The alpha value falls within the acceptable range (it is higher than 0.7).

Table 5: Cronbach’s alpha for Satisfaction Variables.

Reliability Statistics for satisfaction variables
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.901 17

Demographic and personal information: descriptive statistics

In this section, presentation of the particulars and descriptive information of the participants will occur. The number of targeted employees was 100 for the self-administered questionnaire with completed questionnaires (n=92) that represented a response rate of 92%. Furthermore, 10 interviews were conducted with 6 employees and 4 managers. Of particular importance to this study were age, administrative level, length of service, job title and the length of service in the organisation.

Age

Majority of the employees are above 30 years of age (Table 5). An estimated 32.7% of the employees were in the 20–29 years bracket, 29.6% 30–39 years, while another 26.5% were 40–49 years and 10 % were over 50 years; 3.1% of the employees were below 20 years. The sample of the study cuts across the age groups, hence forming a good presentation of the organisational population. The majority of the workers fall into the age range of 20–40 years, owing to the fact that their job description was at the first and middle level of management, where direct supervision is required. More importantly, the lack of adequate mechanisation also resulted in high numbers of employees in this category particularly in the packing, distribution and publishing departments.

Table 6: Frequency and Percentage for employees Age.

Employees age
Frequency Percent
Valid Less than 20 3 3.1%
20 – 29 29 32.7%
30 – 39 27 29.6%
40 – 49 24 26.5%
50 or More 7 8.1%
Total 92 100.0%

Administrative level

Table 7: Administrative level.

Administrative level Frequency Percentage
Executive 12 12.12
Senior 23 25.0
Middle 57 62.88
Total 92 100

According to table 7, 12.12% of the employees were in executive positions while 62.88 % held middle management positions.

Job title

Table 8: Job title.

Job title Frequency Percentage
Managers 23 25.0
Supervisors 34 34.79
Other 37 40.21
Total 92 100

According to table 8, the majority of employees (40.12%) were not managers or supervisors while 25% were managers.

Employees Length of service

Table 9 depicts that the majority of the employees have been in service for a period of 1–5

years (31.7%) while the lowest number of employees had worked for 16–20 years (7.1%).

Another 24.5% of the employees were in service for 6–10 years, 15.3% for 11–15 years, 9.2% for more than 25 years and 12.2 % for 21–25 years.

Length of Service
Frequency Percent
Valid 1–5 years 27 29.3%
6–10 years 20 21.7%
11–15 years 15 16.3%
16–20 years 7 7.6%
21–25 years 12 12.5%
More than 25 years 9 13.6%
Total 92 100.0%

Owing to the fact that the workforce was predominantly male, the researcher felt that the findings could not be significantly affected by the inclusion of gender. In view of this, the number of females in the sample was negligible.

Research questions

What is the extent and variety of the motivators under use in Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC)?

There is need to classify the extrinsic and intrinsic motivators in different tables in order to ease the computation of the mean and Std. Deviation for each item under consideration (Pallant, 2007). In view of the above, Table 10 and Table 11 demonstrates the process applied in the calculation.

Table 10 depicts that the means range from 3.5020 to 4.8514 with the former representing the supervisory allowance and the latter denoting the housing allowance. According to the table, supervisory allowance represents the lowest ranked item while housing allowance denotes the highest placed item in the list of extrinsic motivators.

Table 10: Descriptive Statistics for variables in Extrinsic Motivation.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
1_Housing allowance 92 2.00 5.00 4.8714 .47607
2_Medical Insurance 92 1.00 5.00 4.6884 .81782
3_Transportation allowance 92 1.00 5.00 4.6020 1.16094
4_Free Yearly Ticket (for holidays) 92 1.00 5.00 4.3343 1.10859
5_Living cost allowance 92 1.00 5.00 4.3145 1.20400
6_Annual Increment 92 1.00 5.00 3.8598 1.24993
7_Nature of work allowance (such as technician or administrative) 92 1.00 5.00 3.5962 1.69943
8_Supervisory allowance 92 1.00 5.00 3.5230 1.72800
Overall mean for extrinsic motivation for all factors 92 1.50 5.00 4.2519 .64859
Table 11 : Descriptive Statistics for variables in Intrinsic Motivation.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
1_General show of appreciation 92 1.00 5.00 3.2650 1.30763
2_Autonomy 92 1.00 5.00 3.0322 1.27368
3_Praise 92 1.00 5.00 2.8518 1.28801
4_Recommending outstanding employees for training courses 92 1.00 5.00 2.7777 1.24271
5_Opportunity to use your skill and ability 92 1.00 5.00 2.5682 1.21384
6_ Promotion Opportunity 92 1.00 5.00 2.5882 1.13927
7_Certificate of recognition 92 1.00 5.00 2.4739 1.34716
8_Participation in decision making 92 1.00 5.00 2.3012 1.39470
9_Opportunity for secondment to a better organisation 92 1.00 5.00 1.9677 1.14423
Overall 92 1.00 5.00 2.5963 .90510

Table 11 depicts a general show of appreciation as the highest ranked (m=3.2650) among the intrinsic motivators. The lowest ranked factor was an opportunity for secondment to a better organisation (m=2.5963).

Comparison of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivators.
Figure 2: Comparison of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivators.

A comparison between the means of the two categories of motivators showed wide disparities with reported means of 4.25 and 2.59 for extrinsic Motivation and intrinsic Motivation respectively. The values serve as an indication that extrinsic motivation is a more applied tool when compared with intrinsic motivation (Figure 6).

Findings: From the findings, it has been shown that Extrinsic Motivation is highly utilised by Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC) unlike intrinsic motivation.

T-Test for Extrinsic motivation in relation to Intrinsic Motivation

Table12: Paired Samples Test.
Extrinsic motivation mean versus intrinsic Mean Paired Differences
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference t df Sig. (2-tailed)
Lower Upper
1.47349 1.71875 25.645 246 .000

The resultant findings in table 10 depict a higher overall mean of extrinsic motivation (depicted from Q1 to Q8) when compared to that for intrinsic motivators in table 11 (measurements from Q9 to Q17). In order to deduce the level of significance of the exhibited difference, it became imperative to apply a paired t-test especially at the (0.01) significance level. Results from the test depicted that extrinsic motivation was more significantly utilised in the company than intrinsic motivation (Table12).

What is the extent of satisfaction of employees in their jobs in the SRPC?

For ease of interpretation and analysis, division of the question into two sections occurred and subsequently utilised in the determination of the satisfaction levels of the employees and managers. The extent of satisfaction was based on their current job description and work environment.

First: the respective Mean and Std. Deviation for specific items that was linked overall to Job Satisfaction (Qs 19 to Qs 35) were precisely calculated, while the items were arranged according to their position in the questionnaire, as depicted in Table 13.

Table 13 : Descriptive Statistics for the extent of Job Satisfaction.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
  1. Cooperation with co-workers
92 1.00 5.00 4.2410 1.03086
  1. Feeling of accomplishment
92 1.00 5.00 4.0000 .90696
  1. Relationship with manager
92 1.00 5.00 3.7068 1.19069
  1. Freedom in your duties
92 1.00 5.00 3.2369 1.17264
  1. Responsibilities
92 1.00 5.00 3.5060 1.13635
  1. Job security
92 1.00 5.00 3.2892 1.23977
  1. In general, how do you rate your satisfaction with your job?
92 1.00 5.00 2.5462 1.21104
  1. Nature of work
92 1.00 5.00 3.5301 1.15707
  1. Job position relative to your level of education
92 1.00 5.00 2.8514 1.31906
  1. .Support from management
92 1.00 5.00 3.3574 1.14510
  1. Salary
92 1.00 5.00 4.2410 1.03086
  1. Job motivation
92 1.00 5.00 2.5663 1.28446
  1. Fair treatment relative to other organisations
92 1.00 5.00 3.0402 1.36429
  1. Working conditions
92 1.00 5.00 3.4498 1.27890
  1. Organisation rules and policies
92 1.00 5.00 3.4056 1.20822
  1. Training opportunities
92 1.00 5.00 3.3614 1.13853
  1. Promotion opportunity
92 1.00 5.00 3.4016 1.16023
  1. Overall
92 1.53 5.00 3.3232 .74952

As depicted in Table 13, the overall mean and standard deviations for all the items that are related to the extent of satisfaction of employees with their current jobs (Q19 to Q35) is 3.3322 and 0.74698. More importantly, cooperation with co-workers was found to have the highest ranked mean at 4.2410 while the lowest ranked among all the items was found to be promotion opportunity with a mean of partly 2.5462.

Second: A computation of the statistics regarding satisfaction in employees who were overall satisfied and more satisfied is shown in Table 13. The extraction depicted that the number at 57 while the number of those who were overly dissatisfied and more dissatisfied was found to be 27. On the other hand, employees who failed to meet any of the above criteria were neither extracted nor excluded. Subsequently, the application of Chi-Square took centre stage among the two groups of employees in a bid to ascertain whether the statistical difference was significant or not.

Table 14 : Test Statistics for Level of Job Satisfaction.
Number of Employees
Chi-Square 63.389a
Df 1
Asymp. Sig. .000

Table 14 depicts a positive result that denotes significance of the findings; hence, it is noteworthy to indicate that a greater level of satisfaction in the job was reported in the employees.

Finding: The extent of satisfaction among the employees in SRPC is considerably high.

What is the nature of the association between demographic variables and employees’ job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC)?

Computation of the Pearson Correlation was utilised to determine the satisfaction of the employees with their current job dispensation. Table 15 presents a summary of the association based on the Pearson correlation.

Table 15: Correlations values for Job Satisfaction and Demographic Variables.

What is the extent of satisfaction in your current job? Age Administrative level Job title Length of Service
Pearson Correlation 0.146* 0.078 0.133* 0.139*
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.018 0.221 0.036 0.034
N 92 249 249 92

** Significance in the correlation occurs at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Results

  • Age: the value of Pearson Correlation is 0.146* where its significance is found at the 0.05 level (Table 15). It therefore depicts the existence of a positive relationship between the two variables: age in relation to job satisfaction. More importantly, an increase in the extent of satisfaction of employees in their job is directly proportional to increased age.
  • Administrative level: Pearson Correlation for administrative level is 0.078. The value is not significant at the 0.05 level, thereby denoting the lack of positive relationship between the two variables; administrative level and job satisfaction.
  • Job title: Pearson Correlation values for title of job for the employee is 0.133*. A positive relationship exists when comparing job title with job satisfaction and is supported by the occurrence of significant at 0.05 levels.
  • Length of Service: the value of Pearson Correlation for length of service stands at (0.139*) with considerable significant levels found at 0.05 level thereby translating to the existence of a positive relationship between the length of service when compared to job satisfaction. In this case, job satisfaction is directly proportional to the length of service.

What is the association between motivation and extent of job satisfaction in SRPC?

Table 16: Correlation between Overall Motivation and Job Satisfaction.

Correlations
Mean( Extrinsic) Mean(Intrinsic) Overall Motivation
What is the extent of satisfaction in your current job? Pearson Correlation 0.053 0.375** 0.312**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.401 0.000 0.000
N 92 92 92
** Correlation becomes significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 16 indicates the existence of a Pearson Correlation of 0.3125** between the two variables that gains significance at the 0.01 level while at the same time showing a positive relationship. The findings therefore denote that intrinsic motivation is more statistically significant when related to job satisfaction than extrinsic motivation.

Finding: in line with the above indication, the results denote a positive relationship between the overall motivation and job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC).

Results of interview questions

The interview enquired of the managers about the importance of human resources to the organisation, compensation criteria and effectiveness of performance criteria for motivating employees, method(s) used to evaluate employees and relevance in determining future compensation. More importantly, the rewards used by the organisation and the significance of the criteria used for reward and compensation in improving employees’ performance were also sought from the managers.

The interview also sought to receive views of the six employees about being part of SRPC in terms of job satisfaction, sufficiency of compensation received, and evaluation of their performance by the employer, the appropriateness of the evaluation criteria and the frequency and value of the rewards from the organisation.

According to the responses from the four managers, all of them agreed that management was overly involved in providing strategic direction to the organisation with particular interest in human resource management. The managers had enormous knowledge that human resource management entailed the overall planning, implementation and management of human resources while introducing strategic decisions aimed at leading to best practices in tandem with the set standards. In addition, the managers asserted that human resource management was also overly involved in personnel administration and to a larger extent the organisational development of the employees in the long term.

Half of the employees (50 per cent) had prior knowledge on what human resources management entails with the rest suggesting that the department was only involved in supervisory activities.

On the role of human resource managers, managers had overall knowledge of their job description unlike the employees who perceived that their major role was only supervision. While the managers were clear on their role in employing, compensating, utilising and developing the overall capacity of their staff, the employees lacked clear knowledge of their expectations particularly on compensation and rewards from the managers and employers. One of the managers was candid about his specific roles owing to his immense experience in the department. While the employees were moderately aware of the roles of the managers, two clearly pointed out that the managers played a major role in their promotion and compensation. In tandem with this, they pointed out that promotion and compensation could only be affected with due approval from the human resources management.

Eighty per cent of the respondents (managers and employees) viewed performance appraisal as a method employed by the organisation in assessing the worthiness of their employees in terms of their productivity particularly with regard to time and quantity of work done to achieve the desired results. Two of the employees regarded appraisal to mean the promotion and demotion of human resources. On the meaning of incentives, 90 per cent of the employees and managers regarded anything given as a motivational measure to act as an incentive to better performance which eventually leads to improved organisational performance. In addition, the majority of the respondents asserted that financial gains hold much clout and value in motivating them. Occasional organisation of rewards such as ‘parties’ and ‘hikes’ was floated as a good measure for enhancing motivation, particularly after improved organisational performance in the previous year.

All the managers responded that the fair and even application of performance appraisal to employees at the same level was imperative in achieving a coherent and satisfactory workforce. In addition, the employees stressed the need for regular and interactive appraisal coupled with a proper setting of road maps in improving the organisation performance. All the respondents regarded financial rewards as the single most important incentive that provided the staff with added impetus to perform. More importantly, two-thirds of the employees regarded a conducive working environment, particularly flexibility in working hours, as an incentive that would ensure they put more effort into their work. Other incentives given by the employees included ‘reshuffling of jobs to enhance growth of first line employees’, ‘provision of tea and lunch at subsidised prices within the company’ and ‘provision of social facilities such as gyms’.

All the respondents asserted that performance evaluation had a great impact in enhancing organisational performance. Moreover, the managers also emphasised integration of close supervision and swift action in addressing employee’s grievances as prerequisites in improving performance at the organisational level. One manager asserted that it was very important to ‘involve the employee in the whole process to ensure they understand the procedures while allowing them to understand the reasons they rank poorly or highly when compared to others’.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is worth noting that all the variables utilised in the questionnaires had achieved internal reliability of acceptable levels taking into account alpha values were capped at above 0.7. Following the graphical presentation of the Descriptive Statistics on the specific particulars of the employees, extrinsic motivators were more utilised than intrinsic motivation while significance was observed at the 0.05 mark. In comparison, the level of job satisfaction for extrinsic motivation was also found to be considerably higher than for intrinsic motivation and also exhibited statistical significance. In total, correlations were found to exist between the three demographic variables (age, administrative level, job title and length of service and job satisfaction). Lastly, a positive relationship was reported after comparing values for overall motivation and job satisfaction. The following chapter will bring into light a critique of the discussion. Based on the results and discussion, recommendations will be presented in the later stages of the following chapter.

Discussion and Recommendations

Introduction

The chapter offers a holistic discussion based on the results of the study conducted in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC). The research questions are addressed with regard to the presented literature review. In tandem with the role of performance and rewards in Saudi Arabia, the study presents a systematic discussion that is useful in the generation and implementation of policy in the Middle East. Recommendations based on the findings and consistent with the objectives of the study are made at the end of the chapter.

What extent and variety of motivators are most used in SRPC?

According to the results, the organisation overall utilises extrinsic motivators (mean=4.25) rather than intrinsic motivators (mean= 2.59). On the individual motivators, housing allowance was the highest ranked at 4.87 while the nature of work allowance was the lowest ranked at 3.49 in the category of extrinsic motivators. The overall mean in the intrinsic motivators is partly 2.59 with the highest ranked motivator being showing appreciation to employees at 3.26 with opportunity for secondment becoming the lowest, ranked at 1.96. Based on the findings, it is imperative to note that extrinsic motivation holds more value to the organisation when compared to intrinsic motivation.

Basing the argument on the hierarchy of needs devised by Maslow’s (1943) theory, extrinsic motivators can be regarded as a part of the basic needs that must be addressed in order for growth and development to occur at the individual level (Williamson, 1987). More importantly, the relation between job satisfaction and motivation can be linked to the theories espoused in the literature with similar connotations observed between the theories brought forward by Herzberg (1959) and McGregor (1981). In view of their assertions, this study noted that the presence of motivation particularly of extrinsic nature was instrumental in achieving motivation while its limitation or absence may influence the presence of a high level of dissatisfaction.

On the other hand, intrinsic motivation was found to have relevance at the later stages of employment and can therefore be regarded as a part of the esteem and self-actualisation in the Maslow pyramid (Huitt, 2007). Factors such as increased pay and better working terms would improve the functioning of the employees since the individual is overly aware of the prerequisites to improved pay and thus embracing the behaviours that will bring these benefits.

In view of the above, Blunt and Springs (1991) and Khojasteh (1993) asserted that extrinsic motivation is excessively emphasized in the private companies with evidence denoting increasing demand and agitation for facilitation in terms of accommodation and talk time cards. However, provision of unregulated and abundant extrinsic motivators results in plummeting of output and effort thus bringing lower productivity. Deci and Ryan (2000) asserted that introducing a wide variety of motivators to complement some completed tasks usually results in poor output while employees are overly cautious and disgruntled by abundance of the motivators since they tend to act as an impediment to achieving full productivity. The need to enhance bonding among the various levels of management and the employees while controlling the organisational culture and behaviours in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (SRPC) is imperative in order for a clear framework of performance and rewards to be put up.

What is the extent of job satisfaction in SRPC?

According to the analysis of the data adduced from the questionnaires, the mean for the job satisfaction is capped at 3.33 with the highest value for improving degree of satisfaction being relations with the co-workers (4.24) while opportunity for promotion marks the lowest item with a value of 2.54. In tandem with empirical evidence, Maslow (1943) and Alderfer ERG (1977) are useful in understanding the dynamics. While Maslow theory has fixed needs as compared to the flexible view of Alderfer, the effect is usually felt when their application is removed from the organisation structures since it results in discontent and dissatisfaction among the employees of the Saudi Research and Publishing Company (Wilkinson et al., 1986). Failure of the organisation to relate the employees’ needs in tandem with Maslow’s (1943) and Alderfer’s (1977) assertions results in decreased productivity that slows down the organisational performance.

A closer look at the ranking of intrinsic motivators reveals that the feeling of achievement has a considerably high value that commensurate to its classification in the Herzberg two factor theory and the availability of such motivators occasions high levels of satisfaction, motivation and performance. However, the lack of intrinsic motivators has been found to cause no significant levels of dissatisfaction. In comparison, Herzberg’s internal motivators have been found to be similar and closely intertwined with the Maslow needs owing to the tendency of fulfilling the basic needs in order for actualisation to occur. The findings concur with Herzberg’s (1959) theory in that intrinsic motivators must be closely intertwined with the hierarchy needs in order for improved and sustained job satisfaction to occur.

A reflection on the factors with the lowest score reveals that the item of promotion with a value of 2.54 was a representation of wide discontent in the ranks of the organisation employees who perceived some structural barriers that brought about inequality particularly in the manner and distribution of promotion. While the equity theory presupposes promotion as a result of high performance, the management in the organisations may put unequal measures when rating or leveraging the employees, thereby perpetuating the sense of inequity within the workforce (Vecchio, 1991).

It is worth noting that increased performance in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company can only be achieved if there is consistency in the values of employees and the organisation culture. In view of this, performance appraisal and rewards may be allocated to the employee who diligently meets the set criterion. In addition, Robbins (2009), noted that the evaluation of employees on the same level will boost their morale since they will have a sense of belonging and feel their efforts are appreciated.

What is the overall relationship between the demographic factors with job satisfaction among employees in Saudi Research and Publishing Company?

Positive relationship occurred when job satisfaction is related with age, length of service and dependency level. However, the analysis has denoted that there lacks any credible relationship between marital status when compared to the length of service and overall impact on job satisfaction.

Age: A positive relationship exists since job satisfaction was directly proportional to the age of the employees and managers as observed in Weaver (1980) and Klein and Gibson (1970). Increase in job satisfaction is fuelled by authority relationships, higher level of obedience and dissimilarity in cognitive structures between the various age groups. In contrast, Bilgic (1998) disagrees with the findings of this study.

Job title: Positive relationships exist since improvements in the level of job satisfaction occur simultaneously with increases in job title. In contrast, Brown and McIntosh (2003) concurred with Bilgic (1998) who observed a dissimilar effect on the two variables. The nature and size of Saudi families has occasioned the disparities in the relationship observed in the previous literature.

Administrative level: In tandem with Herzberg (1959), the study found the existence of a credible relationship between administrative level and the level of job satisfaction. This was because of benefits accrued from the status quo as one rises up the ladder.

Length of service: the study reports a positive relationship as observed in past studies by Herzberg et al. (1959), Maghardi (1999) and Okapara (2006). Spending lengthy periods in a job helps to develop coping mechanisms that allows them to gain full satisfaction from the nature of the job.

How does motivation relate to job satisfaction in SRPC?

According to the Pearson correlation, a positive relationship at a value of (0.3125**) which gains significance at the 0.01 level has been found to exist between job satisfaction and motivation factors. Previous studies such as Herzberg’s two factor theories and Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) are premised on the same relationship with a strong association observed owing to the influence wielded by the combination of intrinsic conditions and motivation. However, Thiedke (2004) noted the absence of a positive relationship – satisfaction is provided by responsibility, recognition and a sense of achievement while poor working environment compounds the dissatisfaction.

Discussion on the interviews

There was agreement and consensus on the components of human resource management owing to the integral function it serves in the company. The managers were overly informed owing to their advanced studies level compared to the employees who had a diploma certificate. In tandem with Armstrong’s (2006) study, the level of education and position in the organisation enhances the amount of information one is able to access. The inadequacy in knowledge on the specific roles of employees has been blamed on the limited interactions with the human resource personnel as noted by Ali and Al-Shakhis (1989).

On performance appraisal, the assertion that its main aim was to assess the worthiness is premised in Armstrong’s (2006) observation that appraisal is an important tool in improving the productivity of the employees thereby impacting positively on organisational performance (Huselid, 1995). Arnolds and Boshoff (2002) asserted that financial rewards and incentives are imperative in achieving improvements in all aspects of the organisation. As noted earlier, financial gain and pay increase were found to have more influence on the overall organisational performance while boosting morale and motivation to the employees. In addition, performance evaluation remained the most consistent way of assessing and addressing shortcomings on the part of employees as noted by Ballon (1993).

More importantly, performance evaluation of the company was found to be bolstered by the introduction of incentives and rewards in the company. Performance was also enhanced by increased job satisfaction in the employees. Compensation and regular evaluation of the employees in a fair manner as espoused in Herzberg’s theory was found to improve the performance of the employees on performance evaluation while positively impacting the organisational performance.

Although motivation and job satisfaction have varying and wide disparities in terms of results, empirical studies have denoted that their combination leads to improvement in the organisational performance in the long term. In view of the above, it is worth noting the presence of a clear positive relationship with regard to motivation and the level of job satisfaction in the management scenario under study in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company.

Recommendations

The study on Saudi Research and Publishing Company found mixed observation regarding the relationship between the role of performance and rewards on the overall organisational performance. Through the application of these findings, a few recommendations will be synthesized in order to improve the performance and motivation thereby leading to improvements in organisational performance.

  • The Saudi Research and Publishing Company is mainly interested in extrinsic motivators rather than intrinsic motivators and hence the urgent need to strike a balance in order to address the needs of all individuals owing to the inherent differences. Adopting an individualised approach in addressing the employees will prove useful in improving the perception and rating of employees in tandem with intrinsic motivation.
  • More importantly, there is need for the company to integrate employee friendly measures such as flexible working hours, reshuffling and provision of tea and meals, which will prove effective in increasing the rate of performance and productivity.
  • The Saudi Research and Publishing Company should develop a swift mechanism for addressing the problems facing the employees while improving the business practices to be in line with the demands of the changing business environment. More involvement of the first line and middle level of the management in addressing the concerns of employees would provide a viable mechanism.

The embracement of the following recommendation can easily be integrated within the existing framework without necessarily causing major changes. Although the recommended measures require modest budgets to implement, the human resource department requires the development of a solid argument on the perceived short-term and long-term benefits of implementing them. Cooperation between the human resource department and the senior management is therefore imperative in ensuring the success of the process.

Summary

Introduction

This chapter offers a brief overview of the study topic. The first part will present the limitations encountered during the study period. In addition, recommendations and the lessons learnt are also presented. Finally, a concluding statement is given.

Limitations

The scope of motivation in relation to job satisfaction was wide, thereby resulting in a selection of applicable subtopics that proved instrumental in addressing the objectives and questions related to the study. Although the success rate of completion of the questionnaire was relatively high, the long distance between the researcher and participants ensured that the whole process did not receive the necessary attention and commitment by the participants from the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. The small sample for interviews may have affected the validity of the findings on the various aspects of human resource management. The researcher faced several challenges with regard to booking for interviews owing to stringent rules that required interviewees to seek consent from their seniors.

Recommendations

The study findings are only applicable to the employees and managers of the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Generalisation of the findings is not recommended since the study took place under the prevailing circumstances in Saudi Arabia. Owing to the unique cultural and management scenario, it is advisable to widen the investigation during future works to enhance the applicability of the findings in other management scenarios.

Lessons Learned

Learning to apply SPSS in analysis of qualitative data was a positive gain for the researcher. Through wide consultation and references from the books, it became easier to accomplish the task.

The researcher also became conversant with retrieval of information and its relation with the topic of study. In view of this, the author gained invaluable experience in literature searching by name of journals, website and books.

The researcher believes the utilisation of a closed ended questionnaire targeting more respondents would enhance the generation of quantitative data that would depict a clearer picture of the aspects of human resource management.

Conclusion

The summary and major points deduced from the analysis of the findings and the discussion has been described in this chapter while consideration of the various limitations and potential implications of the findings in organisational structuring is also explained.

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Appendices

Appendix A: Questionnaires

This questionnaire aims to measure the extent of motivation and job satisfaction in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. I invite you to participate in this important study by responding to the few questions below. I guarantee that any information provided will be confidential and will be used for the purpose of the research only. I hope that the result of this study will be beneficial to the Saudi Research and Publishing Company. Thank you for participating. Please respond to my email ([email protected]) or manually, before 10/08/2010.

Personal Details

Please mark the most appropriate answer

  1. Age
  • Less than 21
  • 21-30
  • 31-40
  • 41-50
  • Above 50
  1. Administrative level ( Management Levels )
  • (Senior) Management
  • Middle management
  • Executive Management
  1. Job title
  • Manager supervisors
  • Other
  1. Number of years served
  • 0-5 years
  • 6-10 years
  • 11-15 years
  • 16-20 years
  • 21-25 years
  • Above 25 Years

To what level are the following elements used in the Saudi Research and Publishing Company?

Please mark the box that is most appropriate for each statement.

Elements Never Rarely Occasionally often Very often
1 Annual Increment
2 Free Yearly Ticket (for holidays)
3 Medical Insurance
4 Housing allowance
5 Nature of work allowance
(such as administrative or technician)
6 Supervisory allowance
7 Living cost allowance
8 Transport allowance
9 Praise
10 Autonomy
11 Certificate of recognition
12 Promotion opportunity
13 Participation in decision making
14 Opportunity to use your skill and ability
15 Training and sponsorship for further education
16 Opportunity for secondment to a better organisation
17 General show of appreciation
18 If any other, please list and show how you rate it

How do you rate your level of satisfaction with the following elements?

Please mark the most appropriate box for each statement.

Elements Very satisfactory Satisfactory Good Not Satisfactory Poor
19 Salary
20 Feeling of accomplishment
21 Support from management
22 Nature of work
23 Responsibilities
24 Working conditions
25 Organisation rules and policies
26 Promotion opportunity
27 Training opportunities
28 Co-operation with co-workers
29 Job security
30 Freedom in your duties
31 Fair treatment relative to other organisations
32 Relationship with manager
33 Job position relative to your level of education
34 Job motivation
35 In general, how do you rate your satisfaction with job?

Your time and effort in answering the questions is highly appreciated. Thank you for your participation. Please return/submit by 10/08/2010, If you have any questions you wish to ask, please contact this number: 0

Appendix B: Interview questions

With the aim of understanding business operations in Saudi Arabia, I invite you to participate in this important study by responding to the few questions below. I guarantee that any information provided will be confidential. Your participation is highly appreciated. (Your responses will be recorded?)

Managers

How are human resources important to your organisation?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Which criteria do you use to compensate your employees?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

How are the (performance?) criteria effective in motivating employees?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Which method(s) do you use to evaluate employees?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Are evaluation results used in determining future compensation?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

What rewards does your organisation use?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

In your opinion, do the criteria for reward and compensation improve employees’ performance? (How?)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Employees

How do you feel as an employee of the Saudi Research and Publishing Company? (job satisfaction?)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

In your opinion, is the compensation you receive sufficient?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Does your organisation evaluate your performance? (How?)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

In your opinion, are the (performance?) evaluation criteria appropriate?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

How often do you receive rewards from your organisation?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

How do you value the rewards?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Thank you for participating in this study. Your responses are very important.

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StudyCorgi. (2021, April 5). Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/employees-satisfaction-in-saudi-arabia/

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1. StudyCorgi. "Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia." April 5, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/employees-satisfaction-in-saudi-arabia/.


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StudyCorgi. "Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia." April 5, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/employees-satisfaction-in-saudi-arabia/.

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StudyCorgi. 2021. "Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia." April 5, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/employees-satisfaction-in-saudi-arabia/.

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StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Employees’ Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia'. 5 April.

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