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Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Type 1 develops when the immune system denatures pancreatic cells and impairs insulin hormone production responsible for glucose regulation. In type 2, the body demonstrates insulin resistance, and the cells do not produce or utilize insulin in the body (Tilg et al., 2017). The main risk factors for type 2 diabetes are multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental aspects. The other elements include high blood cholesterol levels, hypertension, family history, gestation, and age.

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Signs and Symptoms

Type 1 diabetes has a severe and rapid onset of symptoms, whereas type 2 individuals may lack clinical indication. The common symptoms include; increased thirst, frequent micturition, ketonuria, irritability, weight loss, and fatigue(Tilg et al., 2017). Some individuals may indicate blurred vision, frequent infections, and delayed wound healing.

Diagnosis

The glycated hemoglobin test indicates a two to three months glucose level (Tilg et al., 2017). A random blood sugar test of more than 11mmol/L suggests diabetes. A fasting blood sugar test of higher than 7mmol/L on two different occasions indicates diabetes (Tilg et al., 2017). Oral glucose tolerance test readings of more than 7.8 mmol/L show the presence of prediabetes.

Treatment

Insulin therapy is used in the management of DM; it is administered as an injection by a fine needle and syringe. Pancreas transplant in type 1 diabetes could be a permanent treatment to replace insulin therapy (Tilg et al., 2017). Bariatric surgery, just like a gastric bypass for type 2 DM, can result in improved outcomes; however, it is not recommended subject to the risks involved.

Nursing Considerations

The nurses should ensure regular monitoring and recording of the blood sugar; besides, they should maintain insulin administration appropriately. The nursing intervention includes educating the patient on healthy eating; avoiding diets that may increase glucose levels. The nurses encourage patients to engage in physical exercises; they increase glucose uptake into the cells and enhance insulin sensitivity.

Reference

Tilg, H., Moschen, A. R., & Roden, M. (2017). NAFLD and diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Gastroenterology & hepatology, 14(1), 32-42. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, May 4). Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/endocrine-disorders-diabetes-mellitus/

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus." May 4, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/endocrine-disorders-diabetes-mellitus/.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus'. 4 May.

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