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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology

Times of antiquity were characterized by reduced cases of medical disorders. The few that existed were either managed by traditional or less sophisticated technologies. Today, medical concerns such as cancer, diabetes, and other cardiovascular disorders have become common in the medical fraternity. Poor eating habits and lifestyle changes have been associated with such diseases. Reduced life expectancies and high mortality rates have been observed. Awareness regarding some of these chronic disorders is vital. Diabetes is one of the major chronic diseases that have claimed many lives in most parts of the world (Sperling 60). This paper explains Type 1 diabetes. The causes, symptoms, therapeutic procedures, and management procedures of the disease are also explained.

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Diabetes is a derivative of the Greek word ‘diabanein’ which implies siphon. It is a disorder that affects the correct metabolism of the body. Proper regulation of blood sugar is usually impaired. Glucose overloading is characteristic of the disorder. Governments have lately embarked on campaigns to sensitize people on the risks posed by diabetes. Diabetic cases are worrying and need serious checks. In the US, the disease is ranked 7th among all killer diseases (Sperling 70). It has been found out that people with diabetic relatives have a higher risk of acquiring the disorder. Three major types namely Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes are common.

Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disorder. The attack of the insulin beta cells by the immune system destroys them. As a result, no insulin is produced. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5-10% of the total diabetic cases in the USA (Sperling 85). Research indicates that no clear cause of the disorder is known. Children and the youth form the greatest risk group.

The diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes may be through several tests. Fasting blood glucose test is the most common. Children and non-pregnant adults are subjected to the test. Other tests include Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), random test, and glycohemoglobin test (Fox 110). The symptoms and complications associated with the disorder develop fast. Frequent urination, constant extreme hunger, increased thirst, blurred vision, extreme fatigue, nausea are common symptoms. In addition, unexplained weight loss, irritability, and vomiting are observed. Failure to treat this disorder leads to the development of ketoacidosis resulting in death (Fox 120).

Prevention and treatment of the disorder are crucial to avert the serious effects that accrue. Preventive care is usually the best compared to curative care. Frequent vigorous exercises, loss of weight, low calorie and low-fat diets are important in the prevention of the disorder. Research indicates that about 90% of diabetics are overweight (Jabbour 78). Smoking and excessive alcohol use should also be discouraged to curb future heart diseases. Treatment methods are all based on the close monitoring of blood sugar levels. Regular intake of insulin is complimented with living an active life. Doctors may prescribe some pills, injectible medicine, or insulin depending on the severity and stage of the disorder. Different types of insulin are usually injected on basis of the onset time and the incubation period of the disorder. These types include; Semilente, Rapid or Regular Activity, Intermediate-Acting, and Long-Acting insulin (Jabbour 82).

Researchers are actively searching for the exact causes of Type 1 diabetes. The possible ways to prevent, manage and treat is also a prime consideration. The causative genes involved in the disorder may be found soon. Several studies are already underway to ensure that the disorder does not remain a mystery. These studies are; The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), Islet Transplantation for Type 1 diabetes, and Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1 (DPT–1). In addition, some networks and organizations have been set up to conduct extensive studies. They are, among others; the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC), Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Consortium, and The Immune Tolerance Network (Jabbour 97).

It is evident that type 1 diabetes is a deadly disorder just as the other types are. A participatory approach must be used in handling the disorder. The patients need to stick to their prescriptions to avoid serious complications thereafter. The uninfected, on the other hand, should advocate for healthy eating and active life to keep the disorder at bay. Society must become aware of the risks associated with the disorder. This will ensure that the present and future generations are free of the disorder.

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Works Cited

Fox, Charles. Type 1 Diabetes. London: Class Health, 2007, Pp 100-125.

Jabbour, Serge. Type 1 diabetes in adults: principles and practice. Informal Healthcare, 2007, Pp 75-100.

Sperling, Mark. Type 1 Diabetes: Etiology and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana press, 2003, Pp 57-89.

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