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Epistemology and Methods of Knowing

Epistemology and the Three Models

Notably, epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the knowledge’s nature, implications, and limits. Hence, epistemology is focused on whether the knowledge claims can withstand investigation in such a way that individuals can distinguish between simple ideas and factual knowledge (Tavernaro-Haidarian, 2018; Entwistle, 2015). For instance, if people seek to understand the nature of God, they will need approaches other than empirical ones. As a result, the three models of how certain we are that our perceptions are accurate are truth, belief, and justification. These beliefs are widespread in society and have an influence on perceptions. The correspondence theory of truth is an epistemological idea that a belief is correct.

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Therefore, these models are individually required and collectively adequate for factual knowledge. I hold the position that we must be both ethically and intellectually upright; nevertheless, we should always rely on justification significantly while acquiring knowledge. Entwistle (2015) defines the minimal requirements for accurate and well-reasoned argumentation. First, we have essential intellectual abilities, and second, we practice critical values. Finally, we employ crucial epistemic approaches effectively. We need to understand how to use knowledge after we have gained it.

Methods of Knowing and Limitations

Moreover, authority, logic, empiricism, and hermeneutics are the four methods of knowing that have particular importance for the integration of psychology and Christianity. The most considerable portion of what people know has been passed down to them by authorities such as families, educators, professionals, and scientists, among others (Entwistle, 2015). Therefore, authority is a potent tool for passing on information from one person to another. Ironically, the authority method’s limitations apply to the lies that are also passed down through authority. Significantly, at least three further factors must be satisfied for a relevant authority to be reliable. First, people must have a fair degree of confidence that the authority correctly assesses the circumstance. Second, they should have grounds to think that the authority accurately reflects the information. Finally, individuals might have a clear understanding of what the authority is communicating.

The logical approach to epistemology starts with the notion that people can distinguish between reality and belief by examining the rational coherence of one’s argument. For instance, deductive logic is used to determine truth by combining and assessing premises based on predefined procedures and principles (Entwistle, 2015). Furthermore, empiricism entails relying on experience to evaluate assertions. When considering empiricism, it is critical to review the sources to ensure that what is stated was correctly delivered and corroborated by the study. It is important to note that society has gained a better knowledge of the biological, physiological, and social factors of human behavior and mental processes by applying scientific approaches to humans (Entwistle, 2015). Finally, hermeneutics are laws of interpretation as well as the science and art of ensuring that the message is correctly comprehended. Hence, most evangelicals use the hermeneutical view that the Scriptures are God-given and reliable as a guideline for belief and conduct.

Methods of Knowing for Christians

Fundamentally, the methods of knowledge mentioned above are suitable for Christians since they blend psychology and Christianity. Nonetheless, all observation is influenced by ideology; assimilation must start with the development of a Christian worldview, which is, of course, an appeal to authority (Entwistle, 2015). According to Christian philosophy, knowledge consists of comprehending the relationship of any reality to God as revealed in Scripture (Vester, 2021). Scripture contains unique and accurate knowledge regarding the place of humans, such as origins, sin, meaning, and morality. To summarize, Christians investigate the underlying effect of beliefs and worldviews on our thinking and conclusions rather than just comparing the results of psychology and theology.


Entwistle, D. N. (2015). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity an introduction to worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (3rd ed.). Cascade Books.

Tavernaro-Haidarian, L. (2018). Deliberative epistemology: Towards an ubuntu-based epistemology that accounts for a priori knowledge and objective truth. South African Journal of Philosophy, 37(2), 229–242. Web.

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Vester, A. (2021). A Christian Epistemology. Apologetics Central. Web.

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