There are thee primary theoretical perspectives on cities and urbanization. Structural-functionalists view urbanization as an entity that provides the society with various merits and disadvantages (Barkan, 2016). Urban life may, for instance, give people many economic opportunities, but among the dysfunctions of cities is the lack of social bonding. Symbolic-interactionists, on the other hand, believe that each person’s experience is different, and one may not claim that city life is favorable or deteriorating (Barkan, 2016). They also believe in the existence of social norms and values that govern the urban experience. Social-conflict theorists have the most negative and pessimistic view of urbanization (Barkan, 2016). They think that cities are created and operated by elites that want to utilize available resources and take provisions away from the poor and non-whites. According to them, racial and cultural diversity only contributes to the elites’ goals.
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Deprivation theory and resource mobilization theory provide two different perspectives on social movements. The first one attempts to explain why such social unrests occur while the latter discusses factors that are important for a movement’s success. Aggression is an imminent part of any public disturbance, and therefore, scholars have attempted to study what may cause it in a large number of people. It has been believed that low subjective socioeconomic status suppresses aggression. However, deprivation theory claims the opposite by saying that people with perceived socioeconomic incompetence are more likely to take part in social movements (Greitemeyer & Sagioglou, 2016). Such organizations should not be regarded as chaotic attempts to share the public concern. Resource mobilization theory views social movements as initiatives with control hierarchy, resource pool, and political objectives (Golhasani & Hosseinirad, 2017). The theory claims that any civil action may achieve success with adequate usage of resources.
Barkan, S. E. (2016). A primer on social problems. Merlot.
Golhasani, A., & Hosseinirad, A. (2017). The role of resource mobilization theory in social movement. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 3(6), 1-5. Web.
Greitemeyer, T., & Sagioglou, C. (2016). Subjective socioeconomic status causes aggression: A test of the theory of social deprivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(2), 178-194. Web.