The analysis of family history by health care professionals is discussed as an appropriate way to determine diseases and conditions which are typical of this family. The focus on three generations in one family is appropriate for such an analysis. In order to prepare a genogram diagram and a family health history table for the client’s family, it is necessary to interview the client and learn about conditions from which his relatives suffer from the focus on genetic conditions and diseases which could lead to death. It is also important to follow certain rules while conducting the family health history assessment and asking the client about personal details (Bennett, 2004). The purpose of this case study is to conduct the genogram assessment with reference to the collected data, identify health risks for younger family generations, propose interventions, and determine the benefits of such assessments.
A specific tool proposed by the Surgeon General allows for creating a genogram diagram and a family health history table in order to reflect conditions, including genetic diseases, which “run” in a concrete family. After evaluating the received data, it is possible to conclude that the greatest health risks to the client’s and younger family members’ health care associated with such diseases as osteoporosis for females and hypertension for both females and males (“Core principles,” 2011). In addition, it is also necessary to control cholesterol levels. To recognize these chronic medical conditions which are often associated with genetic factors, it is important to analyze how many family members suffer or suffered from these diseases with the focus on the age of disease onset.
Thus, osteoporosis is observed in three female family members (the maternal grandmother, mother, and maternal aunt). The disease began to progress when the women were aged 50-59 years. While focusing on the causes of osteoporosis as a loss of bone density, it is possible to state that these causes are in the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, osteoporosis affects females of the same family who live in similar environments. Furthermore, during the determined period, the maternal grandmother and mother also began to suffer from increased cholesterol. Hypertension is observed in four family members, including the paternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, maternal uncle, and father. The disease was diagnosed when the family members were aged 40-49 years. It is possible to state that genetic factors and specifics of a lifestyle can influence the increase in blood pressure. Therefore, in this family, risks of developing hypertension in all members older than 40 years are high because of similar genetic patterns, environments, and followed lifestyles.
To address the identified risks and contribute to preventing the development of symptoms of osteoporosis in female family members and hypertension in all family members, it is necessary to propose two counseling interventions. The first intervention is based on modifying the family’s diet and eating habits. The purpose of this intervention is to decrease the risks of osteoporosis and increased blood pressure and cholesterol. Females in the discussed family tend to suffer from postmenopausal osteoporosis, and the diet for this condition should include products with high levels of calcium and vitamin D (Kanis et al., 2013). Thus, the focus is on consuming milk products, cheese, green vegetables, and salmon. The diet to avoid high blood pressure and cholesterol levels should not include saturated fats. It is important to eat vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and fish. The consumption of alcohol, high-calorie products, caffeine, and salt is not recommended to prevent the development of undesired conditions.
The second intervention is associated with changes in lifestyle habits, including smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercising. The family members should modify their lifestyles in order to avoid the development of diseases which “run” in their family. The focus is on exercising for females to improve their bones’ mass and density. Each training session should last 30 minutes, and the recommended number of sessions is two-three per week (Kanis et al., 2013). All family members should avoid smoking and alcohol consumption to prevent effects on their bones and changes in blood pressure. The focus is also on self-monitoring with reference to the movements and falls control, the consumption of medications, and monitoring of cholesterol levels and blood pressure.
The assessment of a family health history with the help of the proposed diagram and table is important to identify certain diseases or conditions which are typical of several members in one family. The assessment provides individuals with opportunities to prevent the development of certain conditions with the help of following recommendations developed by health care providers and nurses. The appropriate screening of health conditions is important to identify risks and create a management plan. As a result, it is possible to expect that certain conditions will not develop in other generations because of the actions taken. For this family, the recommendations to follow include changes in their diet with the focus on modifications for females and males, as well as changes in the lifestyles with the focus on exercising, self-monitoring, and quitting unhealthy habits.
Bennett, R. (2004). Is a universal family history tool feasible? The Genetic Family History in Practice, 2. Web.
Core principles in family history. (2011). Web.
Kanis, J. A., McCloskey, E. V., Johansson, H., Cooper, C., Rizzoli, R., & Reginster, J. Y. (2013). European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 24(1), 23-57.