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Full Range Model of Leadership

Two Purposes of Leadership

The concept of leadership is directly connected to the initiatives of companies to ensure the overall effectiveness of their business operations. It implies the presence of two primary purposes, which are direction and coordination and safety and hope. They correspond to the principles of the full range model since the former relates to transformational leadership, whereas the latter is described by transactional leadership. Thus, the first purpose, direction and coordination, is achieved through transformational behavior. It means that the leaders following this approach emphasize the need to gain extra effort from employees and thereby ensure the long-term benefits for the companies.

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In contrast to this type of leadership, the achievement of safety and hope by the full range model is a technique oriented on short-term gains. As follows from transactional leadership explaining this need, the managers are focused on rewards and punishments of employees in order to correct their actions. When complemented by the emphasis on the overall results and the intention to instill values to guide the behavior of all participants, it allows achieving the perceived safety and hope for employees. This outcome is conditional upon their awareness of the influence of their actions and the need to take responsibility for them.

The Distinction Between Leadership and Management

There are two terms, which are usually associated with the full range model: leadership and management. The distinction between them is in the theoretical approach of the former and the practical orientation of the latter. In other words, leadership corresponds to the transactional approach since it is related to the change in the attitudes of employees under the influence of a role model established by managers. This type includes the principles of laissez-faire, setting standards, and communicating expectations, and none of them implies decisive action to ensure a rapid change. In contrast to this term, management is connected to transformational leadership. Their interrelation is explained by the general provisions of the latter. Thus, for example, this type of behavior indicates the initiatives of managers to encourage the growth of employees, challenge the old ways in order to increase efficiency, and create a strong sense of purpose. In this way, the distinction between leadership and management is in their correspondence to transactional and transformational leadership, respectively, and the establishment of role models as opposed to practical action.

The Kouzes and Posner Model of the Leadership Process

The full range model of leadership is applicable not only to the specified terms but also to other theoretical systems. One of them is the Kouzes and Posner Model of the leadership process incorporating five practices and ten commitments of being a leader. The interrelation between the two models is conditional upon the intersection of their basic provisions. Thus, the five practices correspond to transactional leadership by describing the need to follow an example set by a leader and support the shared vision. They also relate to transformational leadership by emphasizing the importance of challenging the process, enabling others to act, and encouraging them by praising. As for the commitments related to the transaction, they include personal values, shared aspirations, the creation of a spirit of community, sharing power, and recognizing the contributions of others. In turn, such commitments as role models, the establishment of future vision, innovation, experiments, and collaboration correlate with transformational leadership. In this way, the presented models complement each other and increase the chances of companies on the successful implementation of the selected leadership types.

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