The social conditions make people live according to the moral consent to behave “rightly” not to be blamed or condemned by others. A man still makes up his mind in the American society where to go when it is considered that you are not the same as others. The prohibition of the vast majority of people to simply present somebody’s homosexuality is a core problem of modern society as well as it possesses a danger of rights violation.
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J. Baldwin’s literal prospects on the issue
From the ancient times people have examples of homosexual love interpreted in people’s everyday life along with the antique myths where there are some points on the issue. This was a distinctive feature of another way of thinking, feeling, acting etc. Today people made many obstacles on the way of facilitation of love and passion which two men or women experience towards each other. Facts are stubborn thing.
That is why the paper is dedicated to the problem of gay and lesbian discrimination within the communities of people living in different countries. The approach of adherence to literature sources demonstrating such relationships between people it is significant to analyze different works of some authors standing in their works for the struggle against sexual discrimination in the society and the United States, in particular. The works of James Baldwin, Radclyffe Hall, Andrew Holleran along with some paralleled glimpses of other writers are under analysis in order to show how the problem of homosexuality discrimination is drawing to a head during the twentieth century and how it is rejected in the contemporary society.
When there is no direct agreement in the communities towards resolving this or that social inequity or breach of justice then creative and responsible people with not indifferent position as for the situation begin intending people to rethink it throughout the power of a word. Such attempts were at disposal of many social figures in different times of mankind development. The thing is that publications are colored with aesthetic shapes striving to touch upon peoples’ souls.
A. Holleran to depict gay culture
With regards to gay or lesbian culture it is known that such concepts are laughed at within the majority of people. Even Film-making industry urges to single out the ridiculous moments concerning gays. Richard Dyer in his publication writes: “It is not surprising then that the genres in which gays most often appear are horror films and comedy.” (Dyer 30) The social control makes the main character of J. Baldwin book, David, to escape from the society full of different types of discrimination including sexual one. David is an alien, who needs, as it is naturally outlined for every human being, love, appropriate attitude from the side of his beloved person.
When the relationships with his girl failed, he meets Giovanni with whom he falls in love. The Sexual Revolution in Europe in the middle of the twentieth century gave a fresh breath for the sexual minorities to express their subcultures widely in the society, so the place where David feels satisfied is Paris, the city of love. The idea of the book once more emphasizes the results of the culture which violates those who go apart with its moral standards. This idea runs across the book by Andrew Holleran.
Dancer from the Dance is a work in which for the first time in the United States the culture of gays was depicted with several specific attributes as manners, style, language, attitudes. It is considered to happen in the disco club where gay community is described to be peaceful and normal for the society as well. The author objects in his narration any silly attempts of some people in the novel to blame gays as it is seen in movies. Many editors concerning a convincing reality of homosexual spread were against Holleran’s book. Stereotyping and social control are the factors according to which gays cannot feel free. The effect deepens due to the current problem of racial discrimination.
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R. Hall with emphasis on the lesbian rejection
The unequal attitude towards lesbians is another side of one medal as of the issue concerned. Adrianne Rich in her article points out the psychological explanation of women’s homosexuality due to the social conditions in family and in outer relationships. The perpetual desire of the society to blame lesbians is treated by her due to the fact that “lesbians have historically been deprived of a political existence through ‘inclusion’ as female versions of male homosexuality.” (Rich 323)
Radclyffe Hall sees no ridiculous moments in the state of homosexuality and struggles in her The Well of Loneliness with the social isolation and attempts of many people to make a comedy out of it. This, of course, cannot but make the author stand against the prohibition of lesbian existence. The extent of inversion depicts in the novel written between two World Wars the idea of lesbian ability to express more love and passion than it can be suggested in a case with a man.
Nancy Chodorow in her publications due to the psychoanalysis theory by Freud determines a fair liability of a woman to feel love towards another woman, because “the mother remains a primary internal object [sic] to the girl, so that heterosexual relationships are on the model of a nonexclusive, second relationship, for her…” (Cited in Rich 320)
Thus, the problem of sexual discrimination due to its high level in the US is widely observed by many authors sharing this problem on the personal examples. The ubiquitous social control, isolation and alienation of homosexuals is the core element of inequality from which many representatives of sexual minorities are suffering every now and then.
Baldwin, James. Giovanni’s Room. Delta Trade Paperbacks, 1956.
Dyer, Richard. “Gays and Film”. New York Zoetrope. 1984.
Hall, Radclyffe. Well of Loneliness. Wordsworth Editions, 2005.
Holleran, Andrew. Dancer from the dance: a novel. Plume, 1986.
Rich, Adrienne. “Compulsoy Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence”. Oxford Press. 1997.