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High Blood Pressure: Causes, Symptoms, Medication

Hypertension is a health condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is continuously increased. Also known as high blood pressure, this phenomenon is crucial in the modern world. According to Baker et al. (2018), approximately 874 million people worldwide had hypertension in 2015 (p. 1).

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At the same time, Woolsey, Brown, Ralls, Freidrichs, and Stults (2017) mention that “many primary care clinics are not well prepared” to diagnose high blood pressure accurately (p. 170). Mejzner, Clark, Smith, and Campbell (2017) support this idea by stating that not all medical professionals are confident in interpreting patient results and prescribing adequate treatment of hypertension. This state of affairs indicates that the given health condition needs improvement.

Thus, the present paper attempts to analyze a proposed change strategy of providing hypertensive patients with better primary care and consider various issues regarding its implementation.

Synthesized Review

To begin with, one should note that hypertension is an acute topic of modern medical research, and many scholars try to develop an effective change program to address it. Some of them believe that the situation can be improved with the help of appropriate medication. Fontil, Bibbins-Domingo, Nguyen, Guzman, and Goldman (2017) support this idea and prove that “increasing physician use of fixed-dose combination drugs may be particularly helpful in improving hypertension control” (p. 807).

At the same time, Hu et al. (2015) do not diminish the role of primary care but argue that its components alone are not sufficient to address high blood pressure effectively. The researchers have analyzed a significant amount of relevant data to support that positive change can be achieved when primary and clinic care options are accompanied by lifelong treatment and lifestyle modifications. The two studies show that primary care has the potential to impact the situation under consideration, but a more comprehensive approach is required to achieve positive results.

Based on the information above, one should mention that there exists a program that is designed to address high blood pressure accurately and effectively. It refers to the work by Egan et al. (2018) that admits a pivotal role of blood pressure control measures for minimizing the number of cardiovascular issues across the whole nation.

Even though the researchers emphasize the increase in such control, they stipulate that a high number of US adults with hypertension do not receive adequate attention and treatment. Consequently, the scholars describe an effective Measure accurately, Act rapidly, and Partner with patients (MAP) strategy that is to combat elevated blood pressure and its impact on health.

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Description of the Action Plan

The MAP strategy is a three-component change program that is expected to result in better services provided to patients with hypertension. It is necessary to mention that medical professionals should take any intervention measures in those cases when a patient’s blood pressure either equals or is higher than 140/90 mm Hg. The information above makes it clear that the given action plan consists of three steps.

The first one, Measure accurately, relates to the fact that patients can only obtain primary care of decent quality in those cases when medical staff is adequately educated and trained. It is necessary to prepare the medical team on how to conduct proper measurements and when to diagnose hypertension.

The second step is called Act rapidly, and it involves specific measures aimed at the immediate lowering of elevated blood pressure, which includes the prescription of antihypertensive medications. As for the third step, Partner with patients, it means that the most favorable clinical outcomes appear when medical professionals communicate and cooperate with their patients. This step includes shared decision-making, providing patients with self-monitoring possibilities, and other options.

There is no doubt that the given change strategy implies some limitations, while “cost and complexity are major barriers” (Egan et al., 2018, p. 1325). Even though the action plan seems to include three simple steps, clinics often face difficult to apply them practically. As for the cost, Egan et al. (2018) estimate it at approximately $3,600 for a clinic with 1,000 hypertensive patients (p. 1325).

It means that clinical management should comprehend these difficulties before implementing the MAP strategy. In addition to that, some barriers can appear regarding each of the steps. For example, it is a challenging task to organize practical training sessions and establish their high attendance. Furthermore, it is a crucial issue to make all staff members productively cooperate with patients.

All these limitations can be overcome by creating a specific plan of action and encouraging staff members to participate in it. In this case, it is profitable to emphasize the connection between the given change strategy and positive patient outcomes. Thus, this information will provide the staff members with sufficient motivation to participate in the action plan actively.

Describing the Reliability

One should mention that the impact on a target population determines the effectiveness of any change strategy, and the one under consideration is not an exception. This information denotes that it is necessary to draw specific attention to evaluating the change. One can extricate a useful evaluating strategy of the study by Egan et al. (2018).

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It is so because the scholars indicate that the hypertension control rates have increased by 9.9% to 28.6%, depending on how many sites are considered (Egan et al., 2018, p. 1323).

In addition to that, they describe a decrease in blood pressure points. Thus, it is reasonable to evaluate the effectiveness of the change according to how many patients obtain blood pressure control of decent quality and whether these services result in positive health outcomes. This approach will present a comprehensive insight into the impact of the disease on the population and whether medical staff copes with this negative influence.


Hypertension is a significant problem in the modern world, and many US adults suffer from this health condition. The disease is a central topic of multiple medical studies that attempt to explain the causes of this problem, its current state, and ways to overcome its negative consequences.

Various articles demonstrate that hypertensive patients do not always obtain care of decent quality since clinics can lack the necessary equipment or educated and trained staff members to address the issue. That is why it is reasonable to identify an effective action plan that will improve the situation under consideration.

The MAP strategy is a suitable option here since it implies three steps that will result in the fact that patients with elevated blood pressure will obtain better interventions. Even though the given strategy involves a few barriers, they can be overcome with the help of suitable management practices. Finally, the MAP approach is useful because it provides the patients with decent care and results in decreased blood pressure.


Baker, R., Wilson, A., Nockels, K., Agarwal, S., Modi, P., & Bankart, J. (2018). Levels of detection of hypertension in primary medical care and interventions to improve detection: A systematic review of the evidence since 2000. BMJ Open, 8(3), 1-10.

Egan, B. M., Sutherland, S. E., Rakotz, M., Yang, J., Hanlin, R. B., Davis, R. A., & Wozniak, G. (2018). Improving hypertension control in primary care with the measure accurately, act rapidly, and partner with patients protocol. Hypertension, 72(6), 1320-1327.

Fontil, V., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Nguyen, O. K., Guzman, D., & Goldman, L. E. (2017). Management of hypertension in primary care safety-net clinics in the United States: A comparison of community health centers and private physicians’ offices. HSR: Health Services Research, 52(2), 807-825.

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Hu, C.-S., Han, Y.-L., Ge, J.-B., Wu, Q.-H., Liu, Y.-N., Ma, C.-S., … Hu, D.-Y. (2015). A novel management program for hypertension. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 5(4), 316-322.

Mejzner, N., Clark, C. E., Smith, L. F. P., & Campbell, J. L. (2017). Trends in diagnosis and management of hypertension: repeated primary care survey in South West England. British Journal of General Practice, 67(658), e306-e313.

Woolsey, S., Brown, B., Ralls, B., Freidrichs, M., & Stults, B. (2017). Diagnosing hypertension in primary care clinics according to current guidelines. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 30(2), 170-177.

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