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How Climate Changes Affect Coastal Areas


Natural disasters and hazards caused by climate change are especially the cases during modern times, as the number of toxic substances and various polluting elements is increasing with each passing year. Coastal areas are affected by them in a much greater way since they are susceptible to hazards from both land and sea (Adaptation to climate change in coastal areas of the ECA region 2010). These areas are very important, as they have always been centers of human activity, and they also provide a plethora of ecological services such as erosion control, storm protection, water purification, etc. Because of being vulnerable to the effects of climate change on both sides, coastal areas have been trying to minimize the pernicious effects of human activity for years by using different methods.

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Climate changes effects

The rise of sea level along with erosion is the main threat to coastal areas. Continuously rising temperatures cause melting of ice that leads to an increase in sea level, which in return leads to tremendous damage to people’s property. Storm patterns also become more energetic because of the sea level rise, thus, causing even more devastation and displacement of people (Coastal areas: erosion, coral bleaching, and wetlands inundation n.d.). Extreme rainfalls, droughts, and strong winds are also hazards that originate from climate change. Property damage is not the only thing coastal areas should be scared of – water treatment systems, as well waste disposal sites, can also be damaged during one of the above-mentioned disasters. The ecosystem of coastal areas is also in danger: continuous storms reduce coastal forests’ durability, and an increase in temperature directly affects the flora and fauna of the area. It comes as no surprise that those countries with coastal areas are putting all their efforts into reducing the number of factors that may cause those unwanted climate changes.

Causes of climate changes and how coastal areas approach them

One of the main factors contributing to climate change is the vehicle emission. Nowadays, most people have a car and are using it on the daily basis. The negative impact it provides on ecosystems, however, rarely ever bothers anyone. This is not the case with Singapore, whose government introduced very strict laws regarding vehicle operation. For instance, in order to buy a new car in Singapore, a person has to obtain a certificate of entitlement. Import taxes on a vehicle nearly equal the vehicle price. There are also money deducting gantries on the roads at different places, the government’s tool for discouraging the use of private cars. Guiyang, an island city in China, has managed to reduce vehicle emissions of CO2 and nitrogen oxide by implementing fossil fuel-operated vehicles that use natural gas (Asia Pacific Human Development Report 2012). Seoul resorted to a voluntary program called car-free days, which allows Seoul’s citizens to choose one day when they will use alternative modes of transport. Considering the amount of cars driven every day, these methods can help to reduce the air pollution and hazardous emissions from transport and should be taken into consideration by all countries with coastal areas.

Another trend that can be noticed while looking at some countries’ attempts to minimize climate changes is the introduction of the so-called greenhouses. The distinguishing feature of these buildings is that they are environment-friendly and more energy efficient. By 2030, 80% of buildings in Singapore are intended to be greenhouses. Green buildings are also popular in India, where having such a house allows you to get reduced property taxes. Trees are also often planted at the beginning of the project since they provide greener surroundings. The only downside to green buildings is that they are more expensive to build. Still, various calculations show that the cost will be eventually paid back after approximately 5 years.

Energy efficiency plays a large role in preventing certain climate changes from happening, and yet not many countries pay the needed attention to it. Nonetheless, Nagpur was one of the first cities to be affected by India’s Solar City program. The name of the program speaks for itself – Nagpur has installed solar water heating in one of the hospitals in 2008, later introducing such heaters for use in residential and commercial construction. The Solar City program aims to reduce conventional energy consumption. Sun energy is not the only alternative source of power, though; a wind farm founded by the local government in Hepburn Shire in 2005 has enough power to supply 2300 houses. Wind power stations in Shanghai can provide electricity to 24000 households, and by 2020, 13 wind farms are expected to be built. Along with reducing lighting emissions and costs, these alternative sources of energy are great options for preserving our ecosystem in a proper state.


The current state of our climate is rather unfavorable, and numerous factors are contributing to it, namely air pollution, inefficient use of energy and the amount of gas and waste emissions. Coastal areas have to deal with those factors even more since they are susceptible to natural hazards from both land and sea. By analyzing the actions done by various countries to prevent climate changes, we can define three methods that seem to be most effective: reducing vehicle emissions, introducing greenhouses and exchanging conventional energy for alternative ones.


Adaptation to climate change in coastal areas of the ECA region 2010, Web.

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Asia Pacific Human Development Report 2012, One planet to share, Web.

Coastal areas: erosion, coral bleaching, and wetlands inundation n.d., 2015, Web.

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StudyCorgi. 2022. "How Climate Changes Affect Coastal Areas." January 6, 2022.


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