A specimen chosen for propagation analysis is a citrus tree. Citrus plants, like most fruit plants, are propagated by seeds, as well as various grafts, taps, and cuttings. The propagation of citrus fruits helps gardeners to obtain yields of domestic lemons, mandarins, and oranges from plants that have previously developed well but have not brought fruit. Moreover, it also provides an opportunity to reproduce room culture. Among the vegetative methods of propagation, T-bud is considered the best. It is done in the same way as the T-bud of fruit trees. For successful citrus budding, an optimal choice of time is a period when the bark separates well from the wood: April and early May. It is also possible to bud citrus trees in August. Cleanliness, speed, and accuracy of the process are also keys to success.
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Before budding, it is necessary to prepare every necessary tool: a stock and a scion with well-aged wood, a knife, and an elastic band. Stock is a plant in a pot that receives a bud. It can be a room seedling lemon, orange, or grapefruit 1-3-year-old with a trunk not thinner than 6 mm. Orange seedlings are considered to be the best stock among citrus fruits, as they are drought-tolerant and give good growth. It is also critical to choose a plant that had not no disease. Bud stick is a piece that is put on the stock. It is cut just before the process with a prepared 1-2-year-old twig taken from the fruit plant. Spikes and leaf plates are removed from the separated twigs, but a few grafts should stay near the bud.
To begin the process, it is necessary to clean the truck of stock with wet cotton from dust higher from the ground. With a sharp, clean knife, a gardener must gently make a T-shaped incision of the bark without hitting the wood. For this purpose, at first, a short transverse horizontal incision, and then from its middle down – a longitudinal vertical incision is made. The formed corners of the bark are slightly bent with a knife, and the prepared bud cut from the prepared twigs is inserted into the incision. A gardener should hold it behind the leaf graft preserved near the bud.
It is better to choose for budding a mature, well-formed bud from the middle part of the twig. Above and under the selected bud on the bark, it is necessary to make two short transverse marks. An oval cut of the bark is then made with the bud between the notches. Fingers cannot touch the inner surface of the cut, so it is held by the graft of the sheet.
The oval cut inserted into the stock is covered with bark corners, smoothing and pressing its edges from the sides and the bottom upwards for close contact, ensuring good growth. The budding place is tightly wrapped with an elastic band above and below of bud (only bud and graft remain without band). After carrying out the process, a “mini-greenhouse” is constructed in the pot to create a favorable microclimate for bud, periodically ventilating. Usually, the kidney is clamped after 2-3 weeks (as evidenced by the yellowing and easily separating leaf cherry). In this case, the dense elastic strip is weakened.
Thus, budding is a combination of several plant parts. During the procedure, the component from one citrus and the part of the other are combined. As a result, these interconnected parts converge together and become one, positively influencing each other. Other results include the resistance of the plant to adverse environmental effects, and improvement of its appearance, significantly reducing the time of onset of flowering and fruiting. Moreover, gardeners receive more fruits of improved quality.