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Human Biology – Scientific Method

A scientific method is a form that which scientific questions are asked and answered through observations and experimenting (Starr 1). The first step in a scientific method is the inquiry of a question about an observation made. The second step involves doing background research on the question. This gives more information on what has been done about the issue. The third step involves the construction of a hypothesis, which is a well-informed guess about what resulted in the question. The fourth step is to test the hypothesis experimentally to ascertain whether the hypothesis is true or faulty. It is important for the experiments to be in replicates because this improves the accuracy. The fifth stage involves data analysis and conclusion. This confirms whether the hypothesis is true or false. A new hypothesis has to be constructed if the previous one is false. The final stage is the explanation of the results. This can be done through a report. (Starr 1).

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A carbohydrate is an organic compound. It is made up of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. Polysaccharides, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and disaccharides are the types of carbohydrates. (Starr 28). Polysaccharides’ function is to store energy, like cellulose in plants. Monosaccharides serve as coenzymes and the structure of RNA. The knowledge of carbohydrates will boost my understanding as to why we require carbohydrates in our bodies and what kind of problems are associated with excessive consumption of carbohydrates (Starr 28).

Proteins are compounds with one or more polypeptides. The order of amino acids in a polypeptide is controlled by the gene sequence. Proteins are essential in living things as they participate in all processes within a cell. In the study of biology, the knowledge of proteins is very important as it enables a person to make informed decisions while choosing a balanced diet. A person is also able to tell which kind of food will provide the body with amino acids that the body cannot synthesize (Starr 33).

The Golgi apparatus is a cell organelle found in the cytoplasm of a cell. It is composed of several cisternae, which are membrane-bound. The Golgi apparatus sorts modifies and packs macromolecules before secretion. It is also involved in the creation of Lysosomes and the transportation of lipids (Starr 50).

The Mitochondrion is a membrane-enclosed to the cell organelle. It has two membranes, the outer and the inner membrane folded forming the cristae. The inside of a mitochondrion there is a matrix, which is a mixture of enzymes. The functions of the mitochondrion are energy production through respiration and regulation of cell metabolism (Starr 52).

Diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, along a concentration gradient. This process does not require energy. Diffusion results due to thermal energy found in particles as the temperature is above absolute zero. The rate at which diffusion takes place is affected by the permeability of the cell membrane. A process when substances are assisted across the membrane by transport proteins is called facilitated diffusion (Starr 54).

Cellular respiration is a process in which cells break down food substances to yield energy (ATP) inside the cell. There are two types of respirations: aerobic where oxygen is used and anaerobic where oxygen is not used. The energy released during respiration is used in the synthesis of ATP, a form in which this energy is stored (Starr 59)

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Starr, Cecie, and Beverly McMillan. Human Biology. 9th ed. Brooks: Cole Publishing Co., 2012. Print.

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