Approach to synthesizing the evidence
Various search terms, including human papillomavirus, HPV and cancer, papillomavirus prevention and control, papillomavirus immunization, and the incidence of HPV were used to locate suitable evidence. Further, search terms such as papillomavirus infection, prostate cancer, and education on HPV immunization were also included to enhance the search relevance. These search terms applied to various databases such as MedlinePlus and/or PubMed, PsycINFO and/or EBSCOhost, CINAHL, Google, and Google Scholar. Although several related articles were found from these databases, only few were chosen for the study. In addition, no articles were selected for the study from some databases, including Google Scholar.
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Variables of Interests
In a systematic review study conducted by Das et al. (2015), the variables of interests included independent variable identified as HPV infection and immunization. On the other hand, sexual history and other risk factors were identified as dependent variables (Das, et al., 2015). These variables showed that the effect of viral factors on the outcome of care for HPV for patients with advanced cervical cancer (Das, et al., 2015).
In another systematic review study, variables of interests were identified as the outcome of the HPV treatment as independent variables while dependent variable were viral factors (Grandahl, et al., 2014). The study focused on why parents refused to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccination from school-based vaccination programs.
The evidence of rigor shows that the data collected resulted in precise information for the analysis and, thus, the required phenomenon of interests were explored. It was also clear that data collection techniques were appropriate for the levels of details required to address all the research questions that resulted in capturing data with more discernible points. In addition, analytical techniques used were most likely to ensure the discovery of various significant and prominent themes and topics, and determine relationships among variables of HPV. At the same time, it was noted that patterns detected were not superfluous, and the results were based on evidence from the study.
Three studies were chosen to provide the body of evidence for the study on human papilloma virus infection in adolescent and young adult patients.
The quality and level of evidence presented in each study varied significantly and therefore their significance or relevance to practices and policies.
The researchers used a mixed-methods data analysis to determine that the participants had low HPV vaccine knowledge, understanding, identified severity, and perceived susceptibility while a significant percentage (74%) had not received the HPV vaccine (Fontenot, Fantasia, Charyk, & Sutherland, 2014). The researchers used a significantly huge sample, which was vital for generalization. However, they only relied on male participants and, thus, the study was not reliable. In addition, the result was inconclusive because Fontenot et al. (2014) noted disconnect between actual and perceived risks of HPV while challenges to HPV vaccination were noted and, therefore, was not relevant to change practices or policies in interventions except in addressing notable barriers.
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Grandahl et al. (2014) used latent content analysis to identify that explanations for the parents’ choice were intricate on issues of HPV vaccination for their daughters. The analysis led to five major themes, including girls were little; insufficient information; vaccination not recognized in way of life; scepticism; and a lack of trust. It was noted that parents who made these choices were considering the best interests of their daughters. Although the study presented critical themes on HPV vaccination, its major weakness was the use of small sample size. It therefore concluded that a more flexible advance to the HPV immunization was required for girls. Policymakers and practitioners can adopt the five themes in practice to encourage vaccination of girls in Sweden.
A quantitative real time-PCR analysis was conducted to determine viral load and oncogene expression (Das, et al., 2015). Das et al. (2015) noted that both the multivariate and univariate analyses established viral physical aspects as suitable forecasters of the outcome of care after radiation treatment, and the episomal kind of virus was linked to enhanced reappearance free survival (Das, et al., 2015, p. 525). The study was based on a large sample, and it therefore had enhanced generalizability, but the presence of a few episomal forms could have hindered this. In addition, it had fundamental ideas upon which future studies could be based. The study concluded that viral physical factors might function as significant analytical aspects in cervical cancer. These findings showed that viral load, physical status and oncogene expression were important in HPV treatment and therefore important for change initiatives.
Das, P., Thomas, A., Kannan, S., Deodhar, K., Shrivastava, S. K., Mahantshetty, U., & Mulherkar, R. (2015). Human papillomavirus (HPV) genome status & cervical cancer outcome – A retrospective study. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 142(5), 525-532. Web.
Fontenot, H. B., Fantasia, H. C., Charyk, A., & Sutherland, M. A. (2014). Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions Among a Sample of Male College Students. Journal of American College Health, 62(3), 186-192. Web.
Grandahl, M., Oscarsson, M., Stenhammar, C., Nev, T., Westerling, R., & Tyd, T. (2014). Not the right time: why parents refuse to let their daughters have the human papillomavirus vaccination. Acta Paediatrica, 103(4), 436-41. Web.