Infection is a complex pathophysiological process of interaction between a macro- and microorganism which has various manifestations, from carriage to severe forms of an infectious disease. The features of the onset, development, and outcome of infection depend on the characteristics of the micro- and macroorganisms developed in the process of evolution and environmental conditions (Agita & Alsagaff, 2017). Depending on the properties of the pathogen, the conditions of infection, and the immune function, various forms of the infectious process are formed. It can occur in the form of a carrier, latent infection, and infectious disease.
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Inflammation is the response of the immune system to help the body eliminate the presence of pathogenic microbes. An important protective function is performed by phagocytic cells, macro-, and microphages which are the next stage after external barriers to the spread of pathogenic microorganisms (Soares et al., 2017). The protective function is performed by normal antibodies, complement, and interferons. Cellular and humoral immunity as a specific defense factor plays a leading role during an infectious process. However, similar to any body system, the immune system is susceptible to changes in the development of pathological processes. The basis of immunopathology is the failure of the immune system to perform its normal protective functions (Soares et al., 2017). Dysfunctions of it can manifest themselves in the form of hyper-, hypo- dysfunction, changes in antigen tolerance.
The immune functions preserve the stability of the whole body, its organs, and its systems. They provide immunity to various infectious microorganisms, viruses, parasites, and other agents that can lead to genetic failures. The survival of an infected individual depends on the presence of a full-fledged defense mechanism. On the contrary, an altered immune function cannot normally counteract the attacks of pathogens and damage caused by them.
Agita, A., & Alsagaff, M. T. (2017). Inflammation, immunity, and hypertension. Acta Med Indones, 49(2), 158-165.
Soares, M. P., Teixeira, L., & Moita, L. F. (2017). Disease tolerance and immunity in host protection against infection. Nature Reviews Immunology, 17(2), 83-96. Web.