Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population

Introduction

In order to avert heart failure and various heart diseases, it’s critical to approach the menace factors with caution. Nevertheless, in comparison to the white population, African-Americans frequently possess less admission to health care, according to the research. Not only are they less probable to get an appointment with a specialist and receive the unchanging tests, but they’re less probable to be mentioned to the experts of the heart disease prevention. Reliable results depict that black Americans have the uppermost percentage of cardiovascular disease in comparison to any other national or cultural assembly in the United States, extremely lessening life prospect and bodily, communal, and financial security during the course of their life. In spite of this enormous and quickly increasing frame of research, readings on African Americans are mainly incomplete and include only fifty states of America and District of Columbia. Prominently, African Americans exist in the territories of the United States as well, and counting these inhabitants in health care educations could deliver a more detailed and nuanced image of the influences related to the healthiness and security among African American population.

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Preceding studies have exposed that investigating the relation between race or culture and well-being in places interior and exterior of the fifty states of America and District of Columbia grants the researchers with the opportunity to better comprehend how race and setting interconnect in order to enlighten health issues. Furthermore, the previous study designates that cardiovascular disease menace factor occurrence amongst the persons of African derivation differs across various areas of the United States and all over the world. For instance, in a well-recognized worldwide cooperative reading on cardiovascular disease of inhabitants of the African-American dispersion, enormous differences in the occurrence of diabetes, body mass index, and elevated blood pressure were established. Geographic dissimilarity in the elevated blood pressure and stroke amongst African Americans in the fifty states of America and District of Columbia has also been inspected. Nonetheless, these studies failed to be protracted to the investigation of the African Americans in the territories of the United States.

Despite the fact that the health of entities of African American derivation in the fifty states of America and District of Columbia is every so often associated with persons of African derivation born and/or existing exterior of the borders of the United States, such as Nigeria and Jamaica, little is recognized about the well-being of African Americans living in the United States Virgin Islands. This contrast assembly could provide assistance to improve the distinguishing of racial differences in cardiovascular disease in the framework of the context of the United States.

Methods

Sampling

Missing information US 50/DC USVI
Health outcomes 4,109 (7.0%) 179 (6.0%)
Education, insurance status, or health behaviors 4,661 (7.4%) 243 (8.1%)
Final participants 54,194 2,583

Table 1. Formation of the sampling

Of the sixty tree thousand of fifty states of America and District of Columbia and three thousands of United States Virgin Islands self-recognized non-Hispanic African American Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System applicants of 20 or more years of age, “4,109 (7.0%) US 50/DC and 179 (6.0%) USVI participants were excluded for missing data on one or more health outcomes or other covariates. Another 4,661 (7.4%) US 50/DC and 243 (8.1%) USVI participants were excluded for missing data on education, insurance status, or health behaviours” (Osypuk & Acevedo-Garcia, 2010, p. 1116). After these eliminations, 54,194 fifty states of America and District of Columbia and 2,583 United States Virgin Islands contestants for these examines were remained. The 2010 and 2012 statistics was applied like the rank of the elevated blood pressure, one of the consequences of the cardiovascular disease, was only examined once in every few years in the Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (Agyemang & Kunst, 2011).

Despite being the citizens of the United States, the population of the United States Virgin Islands and its well-being have been mainly ignored in the study, along with the innovations in countrywide strategy and public health ingenuities (Kershaw & Carnethon, 2010). In this research, two crucial questions will be approached: how does the cardiovascular disease occurrence in African American population in the fifty states of America and District of Columbia associate with that of African Americans in the United States Virgin Islands; and are there any alterations in cardiovascular disease incidence and what are the interactive and sociodemographic instruments that are the cause of these alterations. In detail, the descriptive character of health behaviours, health protection, and socioeconomic rank was investigated.

Measures

The Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System, commonly referred to as BRFSS, is a yearly state-founded, populace-illustrative telephone healthiness examination scheme of grown people living in the fifty states of America and District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands. It could be said that statistics were used to gather the information about the participant to conduct the sufficient analysis, as it was the most relevant tool to evaluate the population in the context of the research. The statistics from the Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System from 2010 to 2015 were joined in order to guarantee that an adequate amount of African American applicants were involved in these examines (Williams & Mohammed, 2009). In the end, this approach was utilized to gather the information regarding the prevalence of various diseases such as CHD, stroke, and hypertension, which are related to the cardiovascular functioning and maintenance.

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Analysis

The study presents the examination of the fifty states of America and District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands alterations in three consequences of the cardiovascular disease (elevated blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease) and two consequences related to the cardiovascular disease (the occurrences of overweight and diabetes). All consequences appeared to be self-stated. The study was attuned for seven criteria: stage of development (unceasing), schooling, present smoking, endorsed physical movement (dichotomized as more than twenty minutes of energetic workout at least two times per seven days or more than thirty minutes of restrained workout at least four times per seven days), substantial alcohol usage (men: more than two drinks per day; women: more than one drink per day), commended fruit and vegetable ingesting (more than five portions per day), and any type of health insurance reporting (Agyemang, Kunst, Bhopal, & Zaninotto, 2010).

Results

Factor USVI US 50DC
CHD Prevalence 1.7 % 3.7 %
Stroke Prevalence 1.6 % 4.0 %
Hypertension Prevalence 29.3 % 41.1 %

Table 2. Comparison of USVI and US50DC of prevalence factors

The African American population of the United States Virgin Islands conveyed expressively lower stages of all cardiovascular disease and outcomes of the cardiovascular disease than the African American population of fifty states of America and District of Columbia. “For example, CHD and stroke prevalence were 1.7% and 1.6%, respectively, for USVI black people, but 3.7% and 4.0%, respectively, for US 50/DC black people. In addition, hypertension prevalence was 29.3% for USVI black people but 41.1% among US 50/DC black people” (Boyne, 2009, p. 97). Alterations were lesser but continued to be noteworthy for diabetes and corpulence. The African American population of the United States Virgin Islands as more probable than the African American population of fifty states of America and District of Columbia to be deficient of a high school certificate and to be without health coverage. The African American population of the United States Virgin Islands as more probable than the African American population of fifty states of America and District of Columbia to devour endorsed levels of fruit and vegetables, and they were less probable to smoke at the moment of the examination. There were no alterations in physical movement or heavy alcohol usage among the African American population of the United States Virgin Islands and the African American population of fifty states of America and District of Columbia.

The conclusions were alike when the African American population of fifty states of America and District of Columbia across diverse areas were compared with the African American population of the United States Virgin Islands. There were noteworthy general alterations by the area of the United States of residence for all cardiovascular disease and outcomes of the cardiovascular disease along with the insurance position and schooling. One distinguished alteration for health behaviours was that despite the fact that there was no noteworthy variance in physical motion between the United States Virgin Islands and the fifty states of America and District of Columbia African American population, it was originated that African Americans living in the West were considerably more probable to report covering endorsed levels of physical motion than African Americans living in the other parts of the United States; therefore, the people that are living in the West are more probable to be healthy.

“After adjusting for age, sex, and education, US 50/DC black people were 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63, 3.43) times as likely to have CHD compared with USVI black people. These lower odds for USVI black people were somewhat attenuated after adjusting for health behaviors, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, but the difference remained significant. As with CHD, US 50/DC black people were significantly more likely to have had a stroke compared with USVI black people, and this difference was only partially explained by adjusting for covariates” (Ferguson & Tulloch-Reid, 2010, p. 79). While the enormousness of the relations was frailer, the African American population of the United States Virgin Islands was also expressively less probable to have the elevated blood pressure, diabetics, or corpulence in comparison to the fifty states of America and District of Columbia African American population after regulating the results according to the age, gender, and level of schooling. These alterations were not clarified after altering for insurance position or health performances.

Discussion

The results of this schoolwork exposed that the African American population of the United States Virgin Islands appear to possess improved cardiovascular health shapes and healthier existences than the fifty states of America and District of Columbia African American population, in spite of having the inferior level of schooling and health protection reporting. Despite the fact that there appeared to be some heterogeneity by area, similar outlines occurred while relating the United States Virgin Islands with various regions of the fifty states of America and District of Columbia. In reality, cardiovascular disease alterations were principally unaffected after accounting for wellbeing performances, signifying that there could be background issues, both communal and bodily, that have an impact on these alterations in health performances and outcomes of the cardiovascular disease among African Americans that are living in the fifty states of America and District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands.

The outcomes establish the idea that African Americans are a fluid concept. This idea is a serious deliberation given that being considered as an African American is commonly preserved as a stationary menace aspect for sickness and given its tenacious association with deprived well-being, even after bearing in mind healthcare insurance reporting and health performances. This tendency in the collected works grants noteworthy encounters to the application of strategies and interferences that could advance health in the interior the varied African American populace. An increasing amount of investigation delivers the indication of the background nature of racial-group classification, illuminating that the wellbeing of persons of African American derivation, for the most part cardiovascular disease risk factor occurrence, differs through the areas of the United States and all over the world. These within-group alterations amongst African American population in dissimilar nationwide and ethnic frameworks highpoint the position of socio-structural factors of wellbeing that could most efficiently be influenced at native and domestic strategy stages in order to decrease racial or ethnic healthiness differences in the United States and all over the world and to advance the healthiness of African American population in detail. It is also thinkable that the exceptional sociohistorical alterations in the comprehension of race and racial individuality vary for that the African American population of the United States Virgin Islands.

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Conclusion

In the end, it remains evident that the study depicts the high differences between the African Americans in the Virgin Islands and the African Americans, who are living in the United States of America including fifty states and District of Columbia. Nonetheless, the study draws the attention to the interdependence of this phenomenon with the other social factors including health care performance, availability of the insurance, and well-being of these ethnic groups. In turn, it remains evident that these aspects are the critical aspects of the successful living of the individual in the United States of America.

Nonetheless, the study highlighted the part of the necessity of enhancing the current living conditions of the representatives of this cultural group in the United States of America with paying high attention to the situation in the Virgin Islands. In this instance, the access to the health care and affordability and accessibility of the insurance have to be improved to improve the living conditions of this cultural group. In turn, this approach will have a positive influence on the well-being of the entire American nation as the findings of this research present the analysis of only one segment of the country. Nonetheless, the research has the limitations, as using the statistical data limits the scope of the study.

In this instance, the findings can be implemented by the governmental authorities to improve the current situation related to the treatment of the African Americans and other ethnicities. Nonetheless, the further research is essential. It will contribute to the evaluation of the prevalence of the cardiovascular disease among the other cultural groups in the country.

References

Agyemang, C., & Kunst, A. (2011). Diabetes prevalence in populations of South Asian Indian and African origins: A comparison of England and the Netherlands. Epidemiology, 22(1), 563–7.

Agyemang, C., Kunst, A., Bhopal, R., & Zaninotto, P. (2010) A cross-national comparative study of blood pressure and hypertension between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-origin populations: the role of national context. American Journal of Hypertension, 23(1), 639–48.

Boyne, M. (2009). Diabetes in the Caribbean: Trouble in paradise. Insulin, 4(2), 94–105.

Ferguson, T., & Tulloch-Reid, M. (2010). Cardiovascular disease risk factors in blacks living in the Caribbean. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, 4(4), 76–82.

Kershaw, K., & Carnethon, M. (2010). Geographic variation in hypertension prevalence among blacks and whites: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. American Journal of Hypertension, 23(1), 46–53.

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Osypuk, T., & Acevedo-Garcia, D. (2010). Beyond individual neighborhoods: A geography of opportunity perspective for understanding racial/ethnic health disparities. Health Place, 16(2), 1113–23.

Williams, D., & Mohammed, S. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(1), 20–47.

Williams, R. (2009). Cardiovascular disease in African American women: A health care disparities issue. Journal of the National Medical Association, 101(2), 536–40.

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StudyCorgi. (2020, May 15). Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population. Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/cardiovascular-disease-in-african-american-population/

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StudyCorgi. "Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population." May 15, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/cardiovascular-disease-in-african-american-population/.

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StudyCorgi. 2020. "Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population." May 15, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/cardiovascular-disease-in-african-american-population/.

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StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population'. 15 May.

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