Karma is a theological concept that emphasize on living righteously (Moore & Bruder, 2011). This theological doctrine warns believers of consequences for actions and thoughts that are relived through reincarnation. Samsara describes the state of ignorance and assumptions of the current impressions. In this regard, the cycle of rebirth is experienced by the ignorant believers. Nirvana is a state beyond ignorance and suffering. Nirvana is the ultimate reality of what mankind desires, and it transcends human understanding.
Hinduism considers Brahman as the guiding principle towards reality. Brahman theory of reality teaches about the supreme consciousness and ultimate mystery of god. Atman is the doctrine of individual life, which is taught through meditation. This doctrine focuses on the soul and inner self. In fact, the two principles are viewed as one in terms of their teachings and values (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
The truth of suffering or dukkha teaches that everything that is painful or precious is temporary. This truth emphasizes on self-conceptualization as a way of life. Samudaya is the second noble truth and explains the cause of suffering. This noble truth teaches how individuals pursue happiness as a goal in life without satisfaction.
Nirhodha is the third noble truth and involves the end of suffering. This truth is similar to nirvana as it teaches how patience and contemplation can be used to end suffering. Magga is the fourth noble truth of the path that ends suffering. This noble truth teaches on practices that improve an individual’s commitment to righteousness. Finally, Buddha’s views on noble truth are correct as evidenced in the article (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
The first step teaches about right understanding of suffering as envisioned in the noble truths. The second step discourages vices conceived by lack of right-mindedness. The third step encourages the use of right speech through honesty. The fourth step is concerned with the right action, which is achieved by avoiding killing, stealing and irresponsible sexual behavior. A right livelihood is considered the fifth step and is realized by practicing right understanding, effort and attentiveness.
The sixth and seventh steps are right effort and understanding respectively. Both steps are integral in the realization of a right livelihood. The eighth step focuses on right concentration as a way of achieving objectivity through attentiveness and effort. The eightfold noble path is an integral philosophy of Buddhism as it encourages moral obligation and spiritual enlightenment among the Buddhists (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
Tao, Yin and Yang, are Taoism concepts popular in Confucius and Buddhist societies (Moore & Bruder, 2011). In this regard, Taoism uses Yin and Yang to describe the concept of duality. According to Taoism, Yin and Yang proves that nothing is absolute or static in the universe.
Lao Tzu asserts that nature has its own functional mechanism which is flawless. To be precise, nature does not struggle to accomplish anything (Moore & Bruder, 2011). In this regard, Taoism borrows Lao Tzu’s principle of effortless action to imply how world peace and a stable economy can be achieved.
Confucius principle of the mean is a doctrine of moderation. In this regard, nature is perceived as a catalyst to everything. Therefore, the principle of mean is viewed as guidance for self-perfection (Moore & Bruder, 2011). In addition, the objective of the mean is to maintain an equilibrium state of mind.
Murasaki Shikibu is a renowned feminist and author in Japan. Murasaki’s view on women is that they have been a subject of transgressions in Japan for a long time. However, the hopelessness among Japanese women emanated from efforts of self-identity, free will and independence (Moore & Bruder, 2011). Murasaki view women as agents of moral values. In this regard, women are supposed to pursue their natural rights by reading sutras and becoming practical Buddhists.
St. Anselm argument on God existence is based on an assumption that He does not exist. From this perspective, Anselm’s ontological proof is reduced to an absurdity. From this perspective, the controversy about God existence is philosophically proven using reason. This reasoning is proven by Socrates argument that knowledge is not similar to a commonly held belief.
Gaunilo challenges Anselm’s reasoning by comparing the inconceivable to conceivable. However, Gaunilo’s counter-argument was not sound since an island is conceivable while God is inconceivable.
The first Thomas Aquinas argument is about motion. This argument proves that there is a superior force behind things getting in motion. In addition, Aquinas uses efficient causes as an additional argument. This argument proves that nothing in the universe exists out of its own cause. Therefore, God is the cause of existence of other things in the universe.
The third argument is about possibility and necessity especially in contingent beings. The fourth argument assumes that all beings have a degree of variance in terms of their general composition. This argument explains why natural things exist in a variety. The fifth way argument is that all things exist by design. This proves that intelligence of a superior being is behind the creation of all universal beings.
Leibniz argument about the world being the best among all possibilities is that God has the ultimate choice about his creations. Leibniz believes that God choices are based on reasoning since he is the ultimate Supreme Being. I agree with Leibniz assertion since it is God choice that a creation is perfect than others.
Friedrich Nietzsche claims that God is dead is based on the moral degradation of the society. Nietzsche assertion is that the world is conforming to atheism and lack moral authority as witnessed by war. In this respect, Nietzsche allegations warn the world against oncoming nihilism.
William James views on religious belief are based on the will to believe in God. James believes that knowledge is not enough in matters of religious faith. In addition, James asserts that a personal experience in religious faith is integral. In this respect, James alleges that a healthy mind and sick soul are two extremes of religious faith. Therefore, a need to maintain a balance between the two extremes is necessary for religious consciousness.
The existence of religious diversity explains why my religious views may be right while others are wrong. For example, there exist a variety of religious doctrines such as Christianity, Judaism Hinduism and Islam, and all seeks to be acknowledged as the true religion.
There are also incompatible tradition and community indifferences that cause a variation in religious beliefs. In addition, what is believed to be true among many people can be false. In addition, religious views are based on a vast knowledge about divinity. In this regard, fundamental understanding about divinity may cause ideological differences on the same.
Moore, B. N and Bruder, K. (2011). Philosophy: The power of ideas. NY: New York: McGraw-Hill Education.