Healthy People 2020 Overview
The Healthy People 2020 initiative adopted in 2010 embraces a wide range of topics related to health care. The program includes forty-two topics, each of which has specific objectives and goals. Initiated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the program aims at providing people regardless of their social status with appropriate and timely health care services (Healthy People 2020, 2015). It was implemented to promote national health within the next three decades (Healthy People 2020, 2015). Moreover, another goal of the program is to increase the overall quality and expectancy of life of the population and reduce mortality rates.
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Among objectives set by Healthy People 2020, one might note the collaboration across several sections, evidence-based health decisions, and the increase of public awareness (Healthy People 2020, 2015). In turn, indicators of the initiative consist of the following aspects: general health status, determinants of health, health-related quality of life, and well-being disparities. Monitoring the implementation of the program, data acquired by experts would be distinguished according to age, gender, education, marital status, family type, and other peculiarities.
Population-Based Communicable Illnesses
In order to identify epidemiological and surveillance data related to population-based communicable illnesses in Miami, Florida, it is essential to consider information provided by the Miami-Dade County Health Department (MDCHD). It is an agency promoting the health of community residents. Therefore, the organization conducts epidemiologic investigations and surveys on a regular basis (Disease control, 2016). The organization collaborates with the public and several other agencies to collect the most comprehensive data concerning the health issues of residents.
In the last monthly survey, MDCHD reported that there is a significant decrease in emergency cases associated with influenza and other communicable diseases (Epi monthly report, 2016). Nevertheless, the cases of chlamydia increased from 5646 cases in 2014 to 7123 cases in 2016 (Epi monthly report, 2016). Speaking of other sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis and gonorrhea, it is necessary to note a slight increase in illness occurrence from 2014 to 2016. At the same time, shigellosis incidents considerably dropped from 534 cases in 2014 to 46 cases in 2016 (Epi monthly report, 2016). A range of illnesses, including rubella, measles, tetanus, and bacterial meningitis remains almost the same in the period from 2014 to 2016. In turn, the report pointed out that pulmonary infection cases such as tuberculosis and AIDS also changed insignificantly.
Influenza A, also known as Avian Influenza, is an acute respiratory infection affecting the cells of the mucous membrane placed in the respiratory tract (Information on Avian Influenza, 2015). The core danger lies in the fact that the virus circulates in the bloodstream, breaking a number of vital functions. This might be manifested by high fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, and hallucinations (Influenza, 2016). In epidemiological terms, influenza A presents a high-level risk as capable of rapid genetic change. To this end, influenza A has a variety of types, high virulence, and contagiousness, and is capable of causing an epidemic.
In Miami, influenza A was presented by a slight increase in recent years. Currently, this raise is partially connected to the beginning of school year (Influenza, 2016). In particular, the eight incidents of pediatric deaths were registered since the beginning of 2016 (Influenza, 2016). The research also shows that occurrence probability of influenza A is higher among low-level nationalities. According to the Florida Department of Health “annual vaccination remains the best way to protect children against influenza” (Influenza, 2016, para. 5). This recommendation is based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) decision. Precisely speaking, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and recombinant influenza vaccines (RIV) are regarded by Healthy People 2020 as the most important measures in disease prevention. Being a highly pathogenetic disease, influenza A is especially dangerous for children and elderly people. In this connection, it is recommended to try to avoid public places. Furthermore, the Miami-Dade County Health Department provides free influenza vaccines for children and offers educational and health care services for the population.
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation in brain or spinal cord caused by a bacterial infection. The principal agents of the infection are streptococcus of groups B and D. According to the report, there were seven cases of bacterial meningitis in 2016, three of them in 2015, and 12 in 2014 (Epi monthly report, 2016). Consequently, one might note a tendency to the disease occurrence reduction.
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Likewise in the case of other infectious diseases, vaccination helps to prevent many diseases that can cause bacterial meningitis. The most common vaccinations against meningitis are provided in children at an early age. According to information presented by CDC, “the most effective way to protect you and your child against certain types of bacterial meningitis is to complete the recommended vaccine schedule” (Bacterial Meningitis, 2015, para. 17). In addition to vaccination, Healthy People 2020 recommends limiting contacts with meningitis patients due to the communicable nature of the illness.
Syphilis is identified as a sexually transmitted disease that can cause long-term complications. Syphilis stands out among other socially significant diseases by the fact that in today’s America, it has a progressive development (Syphilis, 2016). The incidence rate of growth over the past decade has grown significantly. Namely, 17.07 cases were reported per 100,000 people in Miami-Dade County in 2015 compared to 14.9 cases in 2013 (Chang, 2016). If untreated, this sexually transmitted disease can cause infertility in both women and men.
According to recommendations provided by Health People 2020 initiative, screening is the paramount measure to reduce syphilis rates. People contacting with infected ones and pregnant women are at increased risk of syphilis contamination (Syphilis, 2016). Therefore, the identified category should pass through continuous screening while others are to conduct routinely screening. The prevention of congenital syphilis focuses on the early detection of the illness in pregnant women and its adequate treatment. As a rule, a three-fold examination of pregnant women ensures the elimination of syphilis in children.
Among other preventative measures, one might note safe sexual contacts with the same partner (Syphilis, 2016). Even after a single sexual contact with an infected partner, there is quite a high risk of infection. The infected persons are particularly dangerous to those around them. In this case, it is crucial to eliminate the possibility of contamination of other family members. Epidemiologic preventative measures include a compulsory registration of patients and prescription of treatment during the first days after diagnosis, a survey of all persons who were in sexual and close household contact with the patient as well as subsequent monitoring of cured patients. It is important to emphasize that Healthy People 2020 program also strives to inform the public about the dangers of syphilis and prevention methods promoting the development and implementation of educational programs on safe sex.
Bacterial Meningitis. (2015). Web.
Chang, D. (2016). Syphilis cases rising in South Florida. Web.
Disease control. (2016). Web.
Epi monthly report. (2016). Web.
Healthy People 2020. (2015). Web.
Influenza. (2016). Web.
Information on Avian Influenza. (2015). Web.
Syphilis. (2016). Web.