Topic and area of application
In this paper Peter G. W. Keen (1981) examines how organisational change is implemented. In today’s competitive era, information system management plays an important role in bringing about quality and product differentiation, therefore it become imperative for the organisations to implement the technological upgrade. But it becomes all the more important that the implementation process doesn’t result in a sense of insecurity and disenchantment within the workforce. The paper point out towards the views expressed by some commentators that at times the implementation process becomes a success in technical terms, but in behavioural terms it results in a failure, as it leaves many dissatisfied workers which adversely affects the organisations efficiency.
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Significance of topic
The topic is indeed quite relevant and significant in the sense that, at times, bringing about change becomes a necessity. Implementing modern IT systems becomes all the more important for the timely availability and security of the data; networking of different offices of the organisation; sharing information with customers; managing supply chain; managing the distribution chain etc. But what is more important is, the transition from manual to automated processes must prove to be a step towards strengthening the organisation and not weakening it.
Objective of this study is to discuss long-term changes in organizations in relation to information systems and how to take care of the social inertia, resistance and counter-implementation.
The study is of vital importance for the system analysts within the organisation and the team of managers responsible for strategic planning for the company
This research has been carried out mainly with the help of a comprehensive literature review. Citing number contemporary writers, the paper analysing the diamond shaped organisational structure proposed by Leavitt’s in which Task, Technology, People, and Structure are interrelated and mutually dependant. Keen (1981) then went on to find example of most of the tactics identified by Bardach (1977).
Level of analysis
Keen (1981) has indeed analysed the topic well with the argument that information systems development is an intensely political as well as technical process and the role of MIS managers becomes crucial during the implementation process. The author has also studied the causes of inertia by analysing the gap between descriptive and prescriptive.
Keen (1981) uses the notion that Information systems indeed result in redistributing the data and are sometimes intended to do away with the monopolies. How this approach results in redesigning parts of the organization, disrupting patterns of communication, and reallocating authority is the main focus area.
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The study comes figures out the difference between the approaches adopted by Counter-counter-implementation (CCI) and facilitative. While the CCI approach is largely defensive, the facilitative tactical approach is proactive and more appreciated by the workforce. The study concludes the implementing IS must not be considered in isolation and it needs to be taken up other organisational functions. Keen (1981) concludes the politics part of information system implementation must not be considered a blasphemous act, instead it should be considered as a means of getting commitment, building support, or creating momentum for change.