Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?


The focus of the research is the concept known as “Islamophobia” and its nature. Islamophobia is a neologism that was first used at the beginning of the 1990s. This term was introduced by the Runnymede Trust Report as the concept that referred to a groundless hostile attitude towards the representatives of Muslim cultures by the individuals or societies of the West (the UK and Europe namely) (University of California: Center for Race and Gender, 2015).

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Islamophobia is a broad phenomenon today; it affects every continent. The meaning of Islamophobia is based on several main assumptions such as the inadaptability of Islam to Western values, its alien set of beliefs and behaviors, violent nature in religious and political aspects. Islamophobia is founded on the belief that Islam as a religion and way of living is dangerous, old-fashioned, and barbaric. Since this idea is common in a large variety of countries of South and North America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania, there is a possibility that Islamophobia differs from culture to culture, and its supporters have varied sets of principles instead of one homogenous ideology.

Why this Topic Was Chosen

The beginning of the 21st century is filled with events of clashes between the Western and Islamic cultures, such as terroristic acts, armed conflicts, mass immigration, fighting for rights, and equalities. The issue of this, ongoing struggle between the cultures is worth exploring because if the hostility is not addressed in the nearest future, it may develop into a much more serious problem.

To understand the roots, causes, and contributing factors of the phenomenon of Islamophobia one must research the issue from a variety of angles. As soon as the determiners and facilitators of the problem are known, the professionals will have better chances to find appropriate ways of dealing with Islamophobia and preventing its development upstream. Islamophobia is an extremely complex happening that is heated up from both sides, so finding balance would not be easy. Besides, the nature of this issue is complicated by the participation of various nations and cultures from both sides. That way, Muslims of different parts of the world may be opposed for different reasons, and this would make Islamophobia quite an unclear concept.

Research Question

The focus of the research is the question of the nature of contemporary Islamophobia. The research will attempt to find an answer to the question of whether or not Islamophobia is a homogenous phenomenon, and if it consists of branches and types of fear mixed with hatred towards the representatives of the Islamic cultures. The research will explore the character of this happening in various societies and conclude on its nature and aspects.

Research Method

The research will be conducted using the review and analysis of the literature and evidence of Islamophobia found in the history, news articles, scholarly sources such as journals and books. The points of view of different researchers will be located and taken into consideration. Among the most valuable resources for this paper, there will be discussions of Islamophobia, debates, and arguments on the political and social arenas. The most significant events to look into would be the details of the 9/11, 2001 in the USA, the clashes with Muslim immigrants and residents in Europe, evidence of Islamophobia in Russia, the recent attack on the office of Charlie Hedbo newspaper in Paris, and currently happening issues with the placement of the Muslim refugees in the European Union.

Reference List

Aluwaisheg, A. A. (2013). Islamophobia in Russia. Web.

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Aslan, A. (2009). Islamophobia in Australia. Glebe, N.S.W.: Agora Press.

CAIR. (2015). Islamophobia in the 2016 Presidential Election. Web.

Cole, M. (2011). Racism and education in the U.K. and the U.S.. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gallup. (2015). Islamophobia: Understanding Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the WestWeb.

Goska, D. V. (2015). Western European vs. Eastern European Responses to Mass, Unvetted, Muslim Immigration. Web.

Gottschalk, P., & Greenberg, G. (2008). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

IslamophobiaToday. (2014). British Muslims Face Worst Job Discrimination of Any Minority Group. Web.

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Khan, M., & Ecklund, K. (2013). Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 7(1).

Shryock, A. (2010). Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

University of California: Center for Race and Gender. (2015). Defining “Islamophobia”. Web.

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"Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?" StudyCorgi, 31 Mar. 2021,

1. StudyCorgi. "Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?" March 31, 2021.


StudyCorgi. "Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?" March 31, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?" March 31, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Islamophobia: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous'. 31 March.

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