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Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Aids: Case Study

What is the Single Most Important Action That You Can Take to Prevent Developing an Infectious Disease? Why?

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The main preventive methods of diseases I consider are a healthy lifestyle and hygiene. In this way, immunity is strengthened, and the possibility of stress is reduced. Moreover, compliance with hygiene rules minimizes the chance of infections entering the body.

Explain the Mechanisms of Disease and the Responses of the Immune System

The mechanism of disease (pathogenesis) is the process of illness occurrence and development. Depending on the type of illness, various mechanisms are identified:

  • Acute disease – the cause is viruses, bacteria, or infections. Usually short-term and fast-curable.
  • Chronic – genetics, injuries, diseases. Last a long time, poorly cured.
  • Auto-immune – poorly studied reasons. The body attacks healthy tissues, perceived as foreign.

Specific organs produce or accumulate lymphocytes – white blood cells. As soon as pathogenic bacteria, microbes, viruses penetrate the body, lymphocytes begin to produce antibodies. These proteins are the weapon of immunity, and they attack alien organisms. If immunity functions normally, a person recovers. Moreover, lymphocytes have “immune memory” – if a familiar microbe enters the body again, they meet it with a large number of antibodies, and humans recover faster and easier.

Describe How the Integumentary System Functions to Prevent Disease

Skin is a barrier organ, and, most importantly, like the thymus, it is a place where certain types of immune cells mature and immunological reactions proceed. All kinds of cells capable of carrying out broad-spectrum reactions are presented in the skin barrier (Chrisler, Spec, Escota, & Davies, 2019). It gives reason to consider the skin as an organ of the immune system.

Analyze How Opportunistic Infections Can Take Hold, Using Your Knowledge of the Cycle of Infection and the Immune System

This type of infection is often hidden in the body and cannot manifest itself when immunity usually works. For the occurrence of opportunistic diseases, a susceptible host is required. Usually, it is a person with understated immunity; the reason for its decline is – HIV, chemotherapy, antibiotics, and many others.

Describe Preventative Strategies That Control Transmission of Disease

Vaccination prepares immunity for possible diseases. Hygiene, as using only personal belongings (such as a towel, a toothbrush), washing hands, and maintaining cleanliness, destroys bacteria around. Intelligent behavior in case of disease – keeping distance or staying home helps not to spread the virus. Another strategy – safe sex can help overcome STD transmission.

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How Alex’s Immune and Integumentary Systems Work Together to Prevent and Respond to Disease? How HIV Alters the Body’s Ability to Protect Itself

Immune and integumentary systems work to protect the human body from disease. Integumentary systems try not to pass bacteria into the body, producing their immune cells. If the infection does penetrate the body, the immune system uses lymphocytes to fight them, recognizing and destroying harmful bacteria. HIV, in turn, affects immune system cells, and they can no longer fight other viruses.

Then, Explain Using the Chain of Infection, How a Virus-Like HIV Could Have Infected Alex

The human immunodeficiency virus is an infectious agent for which biological fluids act as a reservoir. The portal for exit and entry in such a case can be wounds and genitals. The means of transmission is direct contact with the blood system or mucosal cell membranes. The virus is so strong that anyone is a susceptible host for it.

How Is It That an Opportunistic Infection Was Able to Develop? Why Kaposi’s Sarcoma?

When immunity is unable to fight infections, even minor diseases can attack the body. Such diseases are called opportunistic and appear when immunity is significantly weakened. For example, Kaposi’s Sarcoma is usually triggered by the herpes virus, which, on condition of immunity functions normally, does not affect health (Chrisler et al., 2019).

Alex Is Concerned About Possibly Infecting Someone Else with The Virus, Explain to Him How He Can Help Prevent It

Since the most significant number of HIV infections in the world occurs through sex acts and in drug injections, a person in most cases can change and control similar processes (Chrisler et al., 2019). First of all, condoms, if used continuously and correctly, create sufficient obstacles to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Second, a non-infected person cannot be a donor to prevent the virus from entering the bloodstream of other people. Moreover, medical manipulations and cosmetic procedures (piercing, tattoo, shaving) with skin and mucous membrane disorders are dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent blood from entering medical instruments and other personal care items that may disrupt the skin. Lastly, it is essential to carefully behave with wounds and prevent the ingress of liquids into the body of another person.


Chrisler, C., Spec, A., Escota, G. V., Davies, B. (2019). Comprehensive Review of Infectious Diseases. Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences.

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