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Labor Exploitation and Slavery

Introduction

Labor exploitation involves unrelenting social relations where a certain group is treated unjustly to benefit the other party. That is looking at human beings as resources and with no considerations of their social, economic, political and cultural well being. This can be in the form of forcing people to work either directly or indirectly and even using someone against his will. According to the US population census 2000, confirmed that the United State was diverse in terms ethnic groups and racial backgrounds. This paper analyzes the historical impacts of labor exploitation in the US on African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Chicanos, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

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African Americans

This group of people came as a result of intermarriages between the whites (Americans) and the Blacks (Africans). African Americans are well known in the participation of American labor market through slavery. In 19th century they played a leading role in the caulking trade, useful in the building of ships to control leaking. Whites and black workers shared a keen interest in trade union formation, however, the whites discriminated against the Blacks in their unions, therefore, and they formed their own, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

During this period the rail industry emerged and blacks were the strikebreakers and still they could not work in the rail companies as the whites. For instance, blacks worked with Pullman Company as the whites were under the American Railway Union.Further,in 1909,white employees working with the Georgia Railroad demanded that low paid black firemen to be replaced by well paid whites in response to the above the disputes National Mediation Board was formed, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

From 1916-1930 almost a million blacks migrated from the south to the north to cover for shortages created in the First World War. They worked in industries such as ship building, meatpacking, steel and automobile. Despite all these efforts the African Americans did not participate in the American policy making process. Hence, African American leaders advocated for the inclusion of blacks in policy making in the American government. As a result a Negro Economic office was formed to help organize the black to participate in wars later became a rudimentary employment agency, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

Later on in 1935 the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), was formed to mobilize industrial workers regardless of race or background. This congress helped in the reduction of conflicts between whites and blacks. Majority of Africa Americans joined trade unions and labor acts were amended to accommodate all ethnic groups. In fact African Americans were employed in agricultural sectors. Further, agricultural workers particularly African Americans were held back by unions due to social status and public perception. During the second world war it became widespread as civil rights groups campaigned for them, (Henry P. Guzda, 1982).

Chicano

The Chicano is intermarriage between Spaniards and the indigenous Americans. The Chicano were deeply affected by US policies that adversely affected their social, political and economic and political aspects (Guerrero, 1993). In the US Chicanos were treated as second class citizens even though they contributed greatly in the developed of the United States. Their culture was also done away with and they took their children to white-Americans schools as these schools promoted only one culture. From 1940 to 1950 Chicano youth started to develop their culture by forming organizations like Mexican American Movement, Association of Mexican American Educators among others that addresses Chicano problems. As a result Chicano student movement was formed to address funding and recruitment of students into school programme, (Aguirre & Martinez, 1993).

Native Americans

The early part of 19th century was characterized by migration of minority ethic groups in US even though it had limited immigration. Their high influx into the US made them to be exploited as they were discriminated against and did casual jobs which also low paying. The labor exploitation of Native Americans by the US led to disputes between the two countries, (Marcia Yablon, 2004). During this time the Native Americans lost cultural sites, religion, historical and ecological values. Though the federal recognized the supremacy of religion but it did not mandate for its protection and even the Native Americans were not allowed to access these places. As a result Native Americans come up with laws, policies and regulations to govern its eroded cultural aspects, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

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Native Americans were treated as slave traders who contributed to the development of the US economy in the 19th century.They were mainly found in southern America and engaged in Agriculture because in the northern part the area was infertile. They mainly planted sugar and cotton, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994). During the American civil war the slave system was eradicated in the south this promoted the decline of USA economy because there was no labor to work on sugar and cotton plantation. At the same time the Native Americans lost their power that made the US to speed up the development of its modern industrial economy (Gene C. Preston, 2003).

Asian Americans

Before 1965 Asian Americans were discriminatory laws in the labor market, political rights and unionism. Asian Americans’ historical experience in USA can mainly be emphasized on racial background as the whites could not allow their children to attend schools, churches ,policy making or work in the same places with the Asian America.

Asian Americans were also treated as Slave laborers who worked on large plantations as they were whipped by authorized slave overseers particularly those who run away. In addition in whipping they were also at risk of loosing their close family members by trading them or paying debts to slave owners (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994). A few Asian America slaves fought the slave owners by burning barns, murdering slave overseers and killing horses or even going on slowdowns. As a result Asian American learned a lot from US went bank to their countries became independent ant development their own economies.

Conclusion

Employment mistreatment is associated with remorseless communal relations where a fastidious cluster is treated unjustly to profit the other revelry. This is to say, staring at human entities as resources without regard to their community as well as fiscal, egalitarian, as well as edifying well being. Research shows that slave trade mushroomed courtesy of the African labors. Much as the Africans and the whites formed trade unions, the whites separated from their unions, to construct their own unions, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994). At this interlude rail industry was fronted as blacks were used to run small errands. Statistical data indicate that approximately one million blacks journeyed from the south, northwards to compensate for shortcomings created in the First World War, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

They were involved in the ship construction, vehicle industry, and packaging of meat. Historical account is categorically implicit in that much African Americans hustled in fret shops while enduring the fix of a whip, they never took part in the legal making process. Yet words on a parchment could not free Africans from captivity, this forced African Americans leaders who advocated for the inclusion of Africans in the legal framework in the American administration. As a consequence a Negro cost-effective organization established, this helped blacks who lobbied and organized and later become rudimentary employment agency, (Hugh B. Hammett, 1994).

It was also noted that by 1965, Asian Americans were prejudiced decrees in the labor bazaar, egalitarian rights as well as unionism.

The Asian Americans chronological exposure in USA can fundamentally be stressed on cultural backdrops as whites did not permit their kids to learn in the same schools, churches, legal framework, which makes or work in a way so analogous with Asian America.

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Slavery did not feature only among the black Americans; Asian Americans alike received the same measure of maltreatment directed towards Africans. Slave workers were based on huge junks of land as workers. Under this serfdom, the Asian Americans received strokes of the cane from their slave masters. As for the Chicanos, they received ill-treatment, to an extent, that they were treated as second class citizens. The United States legal framework adversely hampered the communal, egalitarian as well as the fiscal aspects, (Guerrero, 1993). In the United States, the Chicanos contributed enormously towards the economic evolution of this economic giant. Owing to assimilation, Chicanos culture was dissolved, and disappeared, as their children were taken to white American institutions as these institutions promoted only one tradition. The Chicano youth began to evolve their mores by form. Corporation like (MAM) otherwise known as Mexican American Movement, and (AMT) referred to as the Association of Mexican American Teachers among divergent that addresses Chicano’s anomaly.

Reference

Hugh B. Hammett, (1994)”Labor and Race: The Georgia Labor Strike of 1909,” Labor History 16; 470-484.

Henry P. Guzda, (1982)”Social Experiment of the Labor Department: The Division of Negro Economics.

.Edna Bonacich and John Modell,(1991) The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community (Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press.

Sucheng Chan, (1991) Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991).

Aguirre, Jr., A, & Martinez, R. (1993). Chicanos in higher education: Issues and Dilemmas for the 21st century.

Guerrero, A. (1993). A brief history of Chicanos. A Chicano theology New York.

Marcia Yablon,(2004)property rights and sacred sites: federal regulatory responses to American Indian religious claims on public lands,” Yale Law Journal.

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Gene C. Preston,(2003) Chairman, Pit River Tribal Council, Testimony to the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, US Congress.

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