The angle of repose is related directly to the phenomenon of mass wasting. Seeing that the former is defined as the most obtuse angle, at which the slope remains stable, the relation between the two phenomena can be defined in the following way: the steeper the angle of repose is, the more probable the chance for mass wasting becomes.
There are three ways, in which stream can transport its load. These are floatation (items with lower density remain on the surface); solution (objects dissolve in the water and, thus, are transported); suspension (small particles are transported with the help of water turbulence).
In a jar of stream water, the suspension is most likely to appear at the bottom of the jar, the solution will be spread in the jar proportionally, and the floatation will remain at the surface of the water in the jar.
Delta is the part of the land, where a river floats into the ocean or a sea (Deltas para. 1).
Traditionally, flash floods occur in the areas that are flat and set rather low. A low and flat surface is the exact definition of a city area; therefore, it is natural that flash floods occur in cities for the most part. In the suburbs, the surface is far from being even, which prevents flash floods from occurring.
The significance of groundwater is not to be underrated. First and foremost, groundwater supplies plants and trees with the mineral resources that they require. Next, groundwater provides about 90% of the members of rural areas with water, since the aforementioned member are not capable of retrieving water from the city suppliers.
Unsaturated, or vadose (Lutgens and Tarbuck 87), zone is a point at which the groundwater appears under the atmospheric pressure. The water table is the area, where the vadose zone ends. Under the water table, the saturated zone lies; the origin of the term “saturated zone” can be explained by the fact that the pores in the soil under the water table are completely saturated with water.
An aquifer is traditionally defined as a permeable rock or any other unconsolidated material, beneath which groundwater can be found and extracted from, according to the definition provided by Lutgens and Tarbuck (84). The role of aquifers is quite impressive; it helps create saturated water, since the pressure from aquifer is quite big.
Despite the fact that pores allow for a better permeability of water, some rocks have high porosity and at the same time display very low permeability rates. It should be noted that not the porosity, but the mechanical structure of a rock defines the permeability rate. Among the rocks that have high porosity and a low permeability, basalt and shale should be mentioned
Since hot springs are generated because of the geothermal heat, it is logical that they emerge in the places that are ore tectonically active; therefore, the West, where the tectonic stretching occurs at a more noticeable pace, is the location for hot springs.
Though it hardly seems possible, there is a way for a sewage-contaminated aquifer to clean itself in a natural way. For the process to start, it will be required to remove the source of the contamination. Due to the movement of the groundwater, the process of cleaning will start. It should be mentioned, though, that the process is very long.
Subsidence is sinking of the land after the groundwater is taken from underneath it.
Lutgens, Frederick K. and Edward J.Tarbuck. “Landscapes Fashioned by Water.” Foundations of Earth Science (7th Edition). Prentice Hall. 2014. Print.