Alignment is making sure that, the materials used to teach at school can match with assessments set and the standards expected to attain specified grade levels. This involves using a standardized curriculum with the aim of teaching the expected content. Tests are used to assess whether the students have mastery of what has been taught and ensure they have done enough study to understand everything. Accountability has increased in schools which demands documentation of objectives to be achieved according to the standards which are set in the curriculum guide. Many students who are English learners need to have teachers who are trained well, so that they can be helped to understand English even if it is not their first language.
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According to (David, 2004), alignment is the level at which expectations of learners agree with the standards in which assessments are set so as to guide students through their learning. Therefore, for this alignment to be achieved, the students should be able to understand instructions provided so as to tackle language assessments easily. The level at which students’ expectations aligns with assessments instructions can be improved through working hard and ensuring they understand the content being taught before they do any test. A criteria that is formulated by several experts of language arts, supervisors as well as teachers is used to keep the expectations of language learners at per with the standards used in language assessments.
How the Arizona or TESOL English Learner Standards Guide In Differentiating Instructions for Various Levels of Ells
TESOL is a group of English teachers who teach English to students who speak other languages. TESOL standards make it easy for English learners to understand the content of other subjects that are taught in English. There has been a problem in the way English learners have been differentiating instructions given to them at their different levels. This is because the learners have different capabilities of understanding new languages and even if provided with the same instructions or training, they tend not to understand at the same speed. TESOL standards assist these students in their learning by providing them with very simple instructions. TOSEL standards require the specific teachers to use instructional materials that are quite real to English learners and those that they can be able to associate with in their native languages. However, since learners at the different levels may have different native languages, visual cues may be of great help to them. Mini-kits that allow teachers to relate instructions to particular objects that can be easily understood by English learners, can also be used in situations where students still have difficulties in understanding instructions. (James, 2003)
(Alexandra, 2008), found that, TESOL standards require the designs in which reading materials are properly understood by English learners. This integration increases the capability of English learners to understand concepts that are described by various instructions. Therefore, teachers of other subjects should ensure that they integrate methods that will enable English learners to develop their understanding of English language which will consequently enable them to understand the specific concepts of their subjects. Another aspect of TESOL standards that would be of help to English learners, would be the creation of charts where words that are mostly used in particular subjects’ instructions are explained in simple terms so as to assist students to understand whatever is being taught and to be at the same pace with teachers as they teach. Some small cards that are attached together where different technical words are explained can also be of great use to student learners as they can take them home for exercise. In instances where a certain class is comprised of a large number of students who share similar native language, a chart that has English instructions explained in their native language would also be helpful to them.
How Data from Various Sources Relating To the Learners’ Progress Can Be Used As a Tool to Drive the Standards-Based Instruction
Instructions to English learners that meet the set standards can be enhanced through the use of data from other sources. This has been regarded as a foundation in which a good understanding of instructions can be cultivated. Data from other sources assists teachers of English learners’ to identify areas that need more focus. This leads to improvement of those particular areas that in turn helps students to increase their levels of understanding the instructions provided in English. This particular data also allows teachers to evaluate and assess the effectiveness of instructions provided to English learners as well as the level at which students are able to understand those instructions. This way, a particular level of collaboration between language learners and their teachers is achieved. Information Technology is one of the sources where data that closely relates to the instructions in question can be obtained and then integrated in learning so as to provide more understanding. Therefore, Borrowing of data from other sources is essential as it helps teachers of English learners to direct their students accordingly in ways that are easy for them to understand and help them achieve their goals. (Rebecca, 2008)
How the Varieties of Standards Available To Teachers Provide a Focus on the Motivation Needed To Tailor Instruction to Meet the Needs of the Learner
According to (Echevarria, 1999), the various teaching standards used by teachers help them ensure that, what has been taught is understood well by English learners. Therefore, the ability of teachers to understand some particular standards puts them in a better position to understand as well as impact skills available in other standards. For instance, the ability of a teacher to understand assessment standards will enable him/her to give other instructions that are directed to meeting other needs of the learners. The different standards will enable teachers to understand learners at individual levels which will result to a good learning environment. Teachers also get to know the areas in which they can best instruct students depending on the available standards set for different areas. This will enable teachers to provide learners with high quality instructions in order to increase their levels of understanding. Different standards have been found to provide teachers with an understanding of the type of students one is dealing with so that those who need help to understand a certain concept can be assisted immediately. This is achieved through the use of different types of assessments depending on what has been taught in order to evaluate learners.
Alignment of the expectations that English learners have with standards set in the learning of English is very important for both the teachers and English learners. However, effort is needed so as to achieve this alignment where an effective criterion is used in the delivery of instructions to learners. Teachers go through training where they are exposed to various standards and ways in which students are helped to understand instructions. Data from other sources is also integrated in learning processes so as to improve the delivery of instructions, to show how certain instructions relate to other areas which could be understood easily by English learners. However, TOSEL standards have been very effective as they require students who do not speak English as their native language to be provided with an understanding of English before being taught other subjects in English. These standards require English learners to be taught using very simple instructions which are sometimes accompanied by explanations in their native languages. (Echevarria, 1999)
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Alexandra B. (2008): Assessing the role of academic standards: National Academic Press pp15-18
David A. (2004): Aligning and balancing the standards- based curriculum: Corwin Press pp12-14
Echevarria J. (1999): Making content comprehensible for English language learners: Ally and Bacon pp36-37
James F. (2003): Research on teaching the English language arts: Lawrence Erlbaum pp24-26
Rebecca J. (2008): Improving testing for English Language Learners: Routledge pp25-27