The first issue I am going to analyze is the essence of Linguistics. It is the science that deals with a language, the forms of language, variations, and changes. The language is divided into different categories, each of these spheres is responsible for some certain area of the language studies. Thus the author analyzes the essence of language and the goals of linguists. He reveals some misconceptions about language, which is a common question, suchlike “Linguistics is not relevant for primary and secondary school teachers” and “Linguistics is concerned with trying to get people to speak properly” (Justice 1-13). Linguists from all over the world are concerned with the habits of speech of the common speaker, and the aims of linguists are discussing the language study rather from the explanatory point of view (Justice 1-13).
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Linguists from all sides of the world, speaking different languages, try to make substantial research on the problem of language study. The most important part here lies in cooperation, sharing the experience of international knowledge on Linguistics. Language is a very complex subject from the point of view of understanding and studying, thus the linguists from all over the world are discussing the essence of the language, as it is considered to be an issue of double nature; as we speak one word but they can mean other things than are considered. The words mean those things and actions, which are presupposed by the speakers of this particular language. Words have a double nature: the meaning of the words is a result of negotiations among people, as they come to an agreement, the words start to possess a certain meaning. The grammar of the language is a very important issue. Thus Prescriptivism is the theory that moral utterances have no truth value but prescribe attitudes to others and express the conviction of the speaker, while Descriptivism reveals the theory of that moral utterances have a truth value. English is considered the language that is easy to understand, learn and analyze, as it possesses a strict and clear-cut structure (Justice 1-13).
The English language is simple from the point of view of the structure but possesses many different variations called dialects. Each of the dialects of the English language has certain features, which distinguish it from other dialects of the same language. Thus, the distinctive features involve certain peculiarities of articulation, pronunciation, word usage. The language has certain rules, and any variations of grammar, phonetics, and morphology can be regarded as distinctive features of dialects. The variations can involve different spheres of language study: phonology, phonetics, morphology, morphonology, syntax.
There exist a great number of arguments about the essence of absolute and relative grammatical judgments, the intersection of correctness here is opposed to the appropriateness, as well as the levels and types of dialects. There is a clear explanation about the need for bidialectal today, to be more ajustable and skilful in one’s cooperation. The issue of correctness and appropriateness is very interesting from the point of view of importance of usage a certain vocabulary, specific grammatical structures (Justice 245-270). The language is a certain mixture of rules, principles, and movements; it involves different spheres of language study, suchlike phonology. Though different dialects are just variants of one and the same language, possess different phonological features of pronunciation, articulation, peculiarities of tensity and length of sounds. The morphological features deal with the form and structure of words in a language, the consistent patterns of inflection, combination, derivation and change, etc., that may be observed and classified.