Second Language Acquisition and Different Age Ranges

Introduction People have developed several misconceptions about the ability to acquire a second language, where, children are said to be at a better position to acquire a second language as compared to adults (Felser & Clahsen 2009). While the allegation could be true, it may not apply to all individuals….

Standard English: Privilege or Discimination?

Introduction The debate concerning the use of a standard form of English has been a heated one for several decades, especially amongst linguistic and partly the general public. One of the most central issues characterizing the debate is the use of Standard English in education and more specifically whether it…

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Psychology and Language Advancement in Children

Diversity of language and culture Back in elementary school, a Korean boy had some speech problems. His problem in the speech was notable when speaking letters r, l, and sh. The problem was as well notable in words that contain these letters. His reading skills were poor, coupled with unusually…

Grammar and the Language Teaching

Personal Statement about Grammar Grammar is an aspect of studying English that causes much debate and disagreement, both in policies of teaching and in the description of the subject on the whole. Historically, there have been several approaches to viewing, studying, and teaching grammar, each of which has made a…

Features of Building and Understanding Sentences

Brown, R. (1973). A first language. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. The present work is dedicated to the peculiarities of sentence construction and sentence understanding since the author believes these issues are of central importance to understanding English grammar and successfully mastering it. He outlines several essential aspects of…

Matthew Effect and the Reader Self-Perception Scale

Despite the popular idea that, due to technological advances, which children are fascinated by, it is very hard to get a child excited with reading, the latter can, in fact, be turned into a child’s hobby rather easily. According to what Dr. Peter Afferbach states, watching children learn to read,…

The Literary Work Concepts

Introduction The literary work that we have thoroughly discussed this week was very significant and interesting to me in many ways. This literal work made me understand literature in a different way. Generally literature restores our past, arouses our imagination, praises the common place, stirs up emotions and serves as…

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Speech Differences in Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Introduction In this paper what will be examined are the differences in speech between bilinguals and monolinguals through the use of the following YouTube videos: Speaking English in the Philippines Speaking English in the U.S. The videos show two distinct population sets, one being Filipino and the other American. The…

Curriculum Design and Innovation in Language Teaching

Introduction The present paper refers to the practical and theoretical implications of curriculum design and change; the proper regard is given to the historically formed traditions in language teaching, the most valuable innovations of the 20th century in both traditional MLT and more modern ELT. The ideas of Connelly (1988)…

New Lexical Items: Long-Term Retention

Introduction Researchers have concentrated on incidental vocabulary learning, especially when examining the efficacy of glosses. From the backdrop of most empirical research studies, Rott and Williams (2003) have established that incidental vocabulary learning can be swiftly enhanced when glosses are made available. This conclusive finding works best when both non-gloss…

Teaching English Language to Hindi Speakers

English and Hindi # Hindu English Comments 1 SOV SVO Unlike in the system of the English language, the system of Hindu presupposes that the subject of the sentence was followed by the object. 2 Place – Adverb – Verb Verb – Place – Adverb In contrast to English, where…

Storybook-Based Language Observation

Phonetic Knowledge From the transcriptions, Richard showed that he did not have major problems with producing any sound. Most of the pronunciation errors Richard made were mainly due to excitement. He seemed so carried away with excitement that he mispronounced some words. For instance, he repeatedly left the letter “d”…

Thai Students’ Problems with English Grammar

Thai students often have problems with using the English grammar constructions and tenses because they do not use inflected forms of the verb in their language. Thus, much attention should be paid to the additional practice in using Past Simple constructions and verb inflections by Thai students (Swan & Smith,…

Long Term Retention of New Lexical Items

Introduction Incidental vocabulary learning has been a major area of study by researchers especially when examining the efficacy of glosses. From the backdrop of most empirical research studies, it has been established that incidental vocabulary learning can be swiftly enhanced when glosses are made available. This conclusive finding works best…

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Linguistic Style of Literary English

Introduction English has become a global language. It is the adopted language of many non-English speaking countries. Literary works are being produced in hundreds from places where English is still a second-language for the masses. However, the cultural influences on the language are undeniable. This influence has led to the…

Chapters 4-5 of “Story, Performance, and Event” by Bauman

Chapter four summary This chapter concentrates on the role played by a reported speech in oral literature. The author begins by asserting the importance of excellent structural elements in reported speech. Direct speech is restrictive in the way of reporting while the reported speech gives the speaker some flexibility to…

Politeness Strategy in Complaint and Response Letters

Complaint Letter John Black, CEO of High Nile Hotels, 11/1/2013 Dear Sir, Mice in the Hotel I would appreciate it if you would help me with this situation. Your waiter Helen Harris served us at your restaurant on 5 January 11, 2013, and we did not have a very pleasant…

When Learning Is Easy: My Experience in English

Introduction At first it seems obvious that the knowledge of a foreign language, especially English, which is extremely widespread nowadays, is essential for everyone. However, when it came to the actual process of learning, I realized that it took a great effort to study the language. Nevertheless, with the help…

Competence and Performance Definitions by Chomsky

Chomsky defines ‘competence’ as “the ability of the idealized speaker – hearer to associate sounds and meanings strictly following the rules of his language” (Chomsky 2006, p. 103) and considers ‘performance’ as the ability to apply the competence into speaking – hearing procedures and show personal knowledge (Chomsky 2006, p….

Politeness Strategy in Same- and Cross-Sex Interviewing

Present the research topic and aims of the research The research topic of the study conducted by Barbara Johnstone, Kathleen Ferrara, and Judith Mattson Bean is gender, politeness, and discourse management in same-sex and cross-sex opinion-poll interviews. The objective of the research was to understand the means of the utilization…

Early Literacy and Academic Performance in English Learners

History of Bilingualism in the US Despite the fact that a lot of Americans see bilingualism as a modern trend reflecting the present-day diversity of the nation, the historical perspective of the issue reveals that it has always been present in the country. The earliest settlers were not exclusively English…

Personal and Formal Writing: Letters Analysis

A Letter to a Friend Hi, Paul! I’m sorry I haven’t been writing for a while, but I was really up to my neck in work. But what happened today made me so upset that I just need someone to see me through this crisis. I know you’ll have some…

Language Testing: Criteria and Techniques

Criteria of a good test Content validity is one of the criteria used to determine a good test. A test is said to be good if its content represents a representative part of language skilfulness and construction among others with which it should deal with. Content validity in grammar is…

Perceptual Foundations of Language Development

Explain how the interactive practices between adults and young children promote language development. Why is the approach you chose better than the other approaches? The nativist interpretation is the most logical of all psychological approaches to childhood language development. This is because each human being is endowed with an innate…

Thai Students Mistakes Make in English

Introduction Thai language is very different from English and, hence, Thai students often have various problems when reading, writing and speaking English. There are issues with pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. It is necessary to note that Thai students tend to speak with a distinct accent and use grammar of their…

“Line” Word, Its Connotations and Denotations

The denotations and connotations of the word can coincide or be absolutely different for different people. The same person would name different connotations of the same word while being in a good or bad mood. English is a polysemantic language, which means that the same word can have more than…

Literature for ESL Students’ Language Skills

Findings in previous studies about the ways that literature can improve the language skills of ESL students Literature has been used over the years as one of the ways of teaching English as a second language. The literature has been incorporated in modern-day technology, such as videos and audios that…

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Parts of Speech Misused in English Sentences

It is a well-known fact that every word in the English language belongs to a certain grammatical category. However, it is sometimes not enough to define whether the word is a noun, a verb, or an adjective. There is a number of different properties that should be considered. Thus, every…

Theories of Second Language Acquisition

Description The study by Roberts and Liszka investigates the processes of second language learning. The authors examine a particular linguistic issue that is researched by other scholars from many angles, namely the acquisition of tense and aspect morphology (Roberts & Liszka, 2013). According to the researchers, they aim to assess…

The Variations of the Spanish Language in Ecuador

A Brief Historical Review Ecuador was subjugated by the Spaniards in 1534, after conquering the Incas in the modern territory of Peru. The resistance of the native population in the region was suppressed by Sebastian de Benalcazar’s army. During that period, the Spaniards founded the largest cities of Ecuador, including…

Human and Animal Language Differences

Introduction Communication is an important aspect of human and animal life because it helps individuals to move away from, express their emotions, and keep in touch with others. People communicate differently from animals, and this forms a major difference between these two groups of living things (Miller 1981). This essay…

Early Sayings in a Child’s First Vocabulary

One can easily think of a few words that are likely to be found in a child’s first lexicon. Such words as “mama,” “dada,” “hi,” “bye,” and “no” are widespread early utterances. The important issue is why those words may become someone’s first. Analyzing early utterances can help gain insight…

Stylistics: Content Analysis Concept

Content analysis is a term used to refer to the act of altering the symbolic composition of a document from qualitative form to quantitative form. Content analysis may also be described as an example of coding. Coding means compiling similar elements or behaviors into a reduced number of categories. It…

Female Arab Learners’ English Speaking Problems

Introduction The English language has increasingly become important throughout the world today particularly in the Arab world. This is why educators and parents in Saudi Arabia have become concerned about their children’s limited level in English especially in oral communication. English is a major problem in Saudi especially among the…

Language and the Brain: Speech Mechanics Discovering

Brain and Language Production Parts of brain There are four parts of the brain, which are the Broca’s area, the Wernicke’s area, the areas known as “the motor cortex and the accurate fasciculus” (Yule, 2010, p. 139). Localization view The ability of the human brain to correlate different aspects of…

Colour-Coding in Teaching Grammar in EFL Classroom

Introduction Communication and sharing information are now seen as the foundation of the development of humanity as well as the primary way for any person to succeed in their life. Therefore, foreign language learning is deeply integrated into the educational system of almost any country. English has become one of…

Contrastive Discourse Markers in Saudi English Learners

Introduction Expressing negation through conversational exchanges can serve many functions (Gönen, 2011). An actual engagement of EFL Saudi interlocutors in a conversational exchange to negate can clearly reflect their inadequate knowledge of the pragmatic functions of CDMs in spoken discourse (Lewis, 2011). The way they frequently negate, by means of…

Improving Letter-Sound Fluency of Preschool Children

Abstract The purpose of the proposed study is the analysis of the difficulties experienced by preschool children when studying letters. The research problem is the identification of a viable approach to promoting young learners’ understanding of the letter-sound correlation. Given this problem, the intervention has been selected that is aimed…

Teaching Literature for ESL Students

Topic Teaching literature in a language course to ESL students has been a topic of a lasting debate. Some researchers argue that, even though there can be certain hazards in the use of literature, it helps students to expand their linguistic knowledge and be exposed to cultural peculiarities of people…

Language Death Process Causes and Factors

Introduction Language is one of the important tools and communication methods that human beings deserve to embrace over the past decade and still do. In the modern society, different strategies to promote the language creativity and active interactions have been a success. As much as people tend to cope with…

Informal Language in Newspapers

To the surprise of many students studying language styles, informal style occurs not only in informal letters and conversations but in newspapers as well. Newspapers may have numerous examples of slang, informal language, and coined words. This is especially the case for the word choice for headings, comic sections, humorous…

Teaching English Speaking Classes for Non-Natives

The English language is the most studied languages around the world. Most of the non-native speakers living outside Europe or America have a very good command of written English, but their spoken English is sometimes pathetic. On the other hand, non-native speakers living in Europe and America can speak English…

Thai and English Phonetic Comparison

Introduction English and Thai languages are different in terms of their phonological systems. For instance, there are 21 vowel phonemes and 21 consonant phonemes in Thai language (Enfield, 2008). The aspirated voiceless stops such as /ph/, /th/, and /kh/ in the Thai language are not mere allophones of /p/, /t/,…

Language and Learning in the Hellenistic Age

Introduction The book analyses how various scholars and philosophers provided vital input to the foundations of language during the Hellenistic age. The main consideration in the book is to engage the philosophy of language, linguistics, and other aspects such as the nature and origin of languages as a medium of…

Thai Students’ Issues in Learning English

Learning a foreign language can pose serious problems for learners. Thailand students are facing this challenge, especially when they go to study in foreign countries. Challenges like pronunciation make it difficult for them to speak and understand English words. With these challenges, English learners prefer a foreigner to teach them…

Black English and Non-Standard Language

Introduction The language that people use is multifaceted and unique. With the help of speech, a person can not only convey his or her thoughts and communicate with an interlocutor. Over the past thousand years, human communication has reached a new level, becoming the object of study of many linguists….

Scientific and Mass Media Writing Comparison

Introduction Understanding the differences between genres and their purposes is critical in writing, as it helps distinguish between the writing styles and figurative language (Wardle & Downs 5). Mass media reporting and scientific researches tend to use various means of expression to deliver the message to the audience. To support…

Language of the “Crimson Abbey” Horror Story

Introduction The short story under analysis is entitled “Crimson Abbey.” This horror story dwells upon a patient at a mental hospice of the future. It is necessary to note that the story addresses an issue of insanity, which is quite popular in modern society. At present, literate people tend to…

Language Acquisition and Multilinguism in Theories

Language is one of the major forms of cognition that distinguishes humans from other species on the planet. Representatives of many other species tend to rely on sounds produced by voice as means of communication, some species even use partially learned systems of vocalisations; however, humans are the only species…

Language Skills and Rhyming Activity: “Rhyme Go Fish”

Preschool and early school years are crucial for children to develop their language and literacy skills and increase the linguistic repertoire to use it during conversation, narration, reading, and writing (Owens, 2015). For this reason, children can acquire tremendous benefits from home or classroom activities targeted at enhancing their literacy…

Hindi and English Comparison: Syntax Terms

Use of English and Hindi Prepositions Unlike Hindi, where a postposition is used, the English language is more likely to apply to prepositions. For instance, in the English language, this part of speech is placed before the identified noun whereas Hindi postposition is put after the noun or pronoun. In…

Teaching Strategies in Instructing ELLs

Teaching strategies The article provides useful and valuable insights into the teaching strategies that educators can use when instructing ELLs (English language learners). One of the most effective instructional practices is an explicit instruction that demonstrates how a task is going to be done and what the teacher and their…

Developmental Diglossia in the Arabic Language

Introduction Diglossia is defined by Fergusson (1959) as a specialized form of study where a specific ancient language is analyzed in the context of comprehending its dynamics for writing and oral works. However, he identifies that the summed up knowledge is not essentially used in day-to-day conversations. This is affirmed…

Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners

Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary is crucial for successful text comprehension. Although not many students understand that at first, it is mainly the teacher’s duty to show students how important vocabulary is and why it should be memorized and used. Sedita (2005) points out that there are several categories of students who…

English Language Learners

Introduction The growing number of English language learners (ELLs) is a problem with which the education system of the United States is faced. Numerous English second language (ESL) schools offer their services to immigrants and their families. However, early literacy and academic performance of ELLs are still at a low…

Negation in Conversational English Exchange

Introduction: The Research Background: The Power of Negation The history of English discourse development is rather complicated. Like any other issue that presupposes not only the tangible evidence like texts or any other form of keeping the track of the necessary data but also such ephemeral elements like oral speech,…

Communicative Activities for English as an Additional Language

Introduction The book “Communicative Activities for EAP” by Jenni Guse and Scott Thornbury is an English book meant for EAP teachers of both ESL and EFL that encompasses the framework for the four macro skills; speaking, listening, reading and writing. The writer chose the four resource model developed by Freebody…

Motivations Effect on Second Language Learning

Statement of Research Problem In the current globalized society, many people are finding it increasingly important to learn foreign languages because of socio-economic and political reasons. According to Huang (2011), the ease with which people learn foreign languages depends on many factors. Some people find it easy to learn a…

Englishes in “Mother Tongue” by Amy Tans

Of all people, a writer is, perhaps, the person that is expected to treat their language with most care and respect. However, the idea of using a language appropriately is rather loose, mostly because the very concept of correct use of the language is quite vague (Crossley et al. 100)….

The Importance of Word Formation Knowledge

Word formation processes and creation of meanings can occur in very many ways so teachers should learn to incorporate these processes to facilitate learning. For instance, language learners normally use compounding as a way of making new meanings from simpler words (free morphemes). For example, waterfall is derived from the…

Discourse Markers in Saudi English Learners

Discourse markers Discourse markers are elements that are applied in communication to enable conversations to become more articulate. However, the particles augment insignificant meanings in rephrasing the expressions (Povolná, 2012). For instance, elements including oh, well, now as well as you know are some of the syntactically autonomous words. In…

Difficulties Facing Foreign English Teachers in ELI

Introduction At present, one of the detriments of teaching vocabulary in the English Learning Institutions (ELI) is the emergence of mixed-ability classes. As noted by Ansari (2013), a mixed-ability classroom environment is made up of different groups of learners with different learning interests, skills, and abilities. Over the years, EFL…

Sociolinguistics Principles and Patterns

The principle of sociolinguistics It is possible to distinguish several important principles that underlie sociolinguistics. First, one should mention the premise according to which many changes within the language can be attributed to “socially relevant forces and facts” (Spolsky, 1998, p. 4). For instance, they can be attributed to various…

Semantic Analysis in Linguistics

Semantic analysis Semantic in linguistics is largely concerned with the relationship between the forms of sentences and what follows from them. Semantic analysis is an analysis of the sensible set of instructions that form part of programming in a language, for instance, the presence of subject-verb agreement, proper use of…

English Language Learning: Arabic and Romanian ESL Students

Introduction English as a second language has proven quite difficult for many students. This has been attributed to the direct influence of their first languages. It is important to point out that it is not only cultural differences that make the students find second languages difficult, but also complex linguistic…

Korean Language Learning: 4 Lessons

Korean is a language I know little (or rather nothing) about. However, I know that it is completely different from English and even such languages as Chinese, Japanese. Therefore, I am a bit anxious about my future lessons in Korean. I am aware of the fact that the communicative approach…

Curriculum and Assessment for ESL Students

The ESL student needs are integral parts of our curriculum because students are divided into different language proficiency levels in K-2 according to the expectations based on the study level. In this respect, students are assessed in terms of the listening/speaking, writing, and reading skills that are essential for further…

Language Developmental Curriculum

Early childhood education is the background for preparing young children for primary school education. During this stage, the children are equipped with strategies of reading, writing, and doing some other works. The education given to children at early childhood is meant to encourage them to interact with the environment, play…

American English as a Reflection of American Culture

Language is a fundamental part of a human culture. It is so ubiquitous that we seem to rarely mention it or give it proper credit. Naturally, something that is used so often will inevitably affect its users and at the same time will be affected by them. Hence the ever-changing,…

Students’ Speaking Skills’ Assessment

Introduction One of the most important elements of the curriculum, the knowledge assessment is supposed to suit all students of the given level and evaluate the basic skills. Hence, it is necessary to achieve high degree of validity, reliability and fairness in developing a set of tasks. Choosing such a…

Concept of the Fiction in Writing

What Is Fiction? In writing, fiction is a type of story that can be characterized by a specific set of features. To be more precise, fiction commonly refers to the kind of setting or a scenario that was made up by the author (“How the language really works,” 2000). Such…

English Language Learners Concepts

Introduction The English language learners (ELLs) are those individuals who represent a diverse population of students who came from different countries, have a different background, and speak various languages. Mainly, they are united only by the desire to master English. They need some adjustment period to be ready to cope…

The Cultural Competence and Linguistic Competence Policy

The Cultural Competence and Linguistic Competence Policy Assessment (CLCPA) was designed for the purpose of supporting community health centers and evaluating their preparedness for dealing with culturally, demographically and linguistically diverse communities (CLCPA, n.d.). This test shows the levels of awareness the agency in question has of other cultures and…

“The Elements of Language Curriculum” by J. Brown

Introduction In his book “The Elements of Language Curriculum,” Brown addresses the teaching methodology and approaches used in it to teach language and indicates that although numerous strategies exist that are supposed to regularize teachers’ experience when teaching, the actual process is often either more holistic or more chaotic. Brown…

English for Specific Purposes in Aviation and Engineering

English for specific purposes in the aviation It is difficult to imagine such kind of activity where global standardized rules are needed more than in aviation. During air traffic control, a potential misunderstanding between pilots and ground staff can cause serious incidents. That is why an introduction to common language…

Mobile-Assisted Learning in Saudi English Students

Abstract The use of Mobile Assisted Language Learning is becoming common in several schools within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The researcher aimed to determine the effect of Mobile Assisted Learning on the grammatical accuracy of English as a foreign language, Saudi learners. The review of the literature revealed that…

Learning Activities for Early Language Skills

Introduction At the kindergarten level, a student is expected to develop oral language skills, including phonology and phonetics. In addition, the student is expected to learn reading, writing, and listening skills. Increased vocabulary and use of words to describe people, objects, and events should also be exhibited. To achieve these,…

Weasel Words’ Definition and Usage

Introduction In his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, George Orwell used term doublespeak referring to a proclamation that contained two or more ideas with opposite meanings. The aim of doublespeak was to make people believe in something without any real evidence to the truthfulness of the information. Nowadays, companies and advertisers all…

Benefits of Knowing a Foreign Language

Why are foreign languages in demand and popularity? Probably, not everyone thinks about it until he or she faces the particular situation. Let us consider several reasons of the bilingualism benefits such as advantages in career, travel, unlimited communication, cultural content, and the fact that knowing at least one foreign…

Spanish Language: Phonology and Phonetics Investigating

Linguistics is the study of languages while the language is a medium for communication. The study of phonology and phonetics comprises of three aspects of language namely the form, meaning, and the context of language (Roach 14). The research will be based on the following research question: what is the…

Contrastive Discourse Markers in Conversation

Introduction In order to define the pragmatic function of contrastive discourse markers during conversational exchange, several themes should be revisited. To begin with, it is necessary to define the discourse markers, as well as outline the main classification and characteristics of those. Second, the analysis of theoretical frameworks related to…

Early Language Development: Phonics Controversy

Introduction Language is certainly an important requirement for proper and healthy cognitive, social, and emotional growth and development of a child. This explains why our education system is designed in a manner that ensures that during formative years children are exposed to the more direct teaching of pragmatic knowledge, phonetics,…

Language Acquisition Concept and Theories

Introduction One of the most important topics in cognitive studies is language acquisition. A number of theories have attempted to explore the different conceptualization of language as a fundamental uniqueness that separates humans from other animals and non-living things (Pinker& Bloom, 1990). Similarly, Pinker (1994) recognizes language as a vehicle…

Tongue in Communication and Personality Generation

The tongue is vital for communication and understanding of the ideas, values, emotions, and desires of the other people. It could be assumed that language creates new conceptions of self-identity, as it is an essential component of one’s personality and can change one’s perceptions, attitudes, and values. The analysis of…

Phonemic Awareness and Children Literacy

Phonemic awareness is the predisposition to the sound configuration of language. Phonemic awareness requires the capacity to spin the concentration of an individual to sounds in verbal language whilst shortly moving away from its implication. For instance, if some children are asked which one is longer between a train and…

Baby Talk: How Children Produce Language?

How did the age and gender of the infant/child affect the way in which adults spoke to him/her? Make a note of any of the specific milestones in language development WITH definitions. For example, did the child exhibit an understanding of semantics, syntax, pragmatics, phonology, holophrases, telegraphic speech? The age…

Indonesian Language: History and Development

Introduction The struggle for nationalism was one of the significant events during the colonial period in Indonesia. It was facilitated by the unity of the Indonesian tribes. The natives of Indonesia achieved unity through the adoption of a common language that facilitated communication. Therefore, the adoption of a common language…

Language Reform in Modern China

Introduction The language used in modern China has undergone several reforms since the time of Qing Dynasty. Studies show that the Chinese language has close relationships with several social aspects, which is the case in any other society meaning this case is not exceptional. Within a span of three hundred…

Mythology: the Greek Goddess Hera

Greek mythology is filled with gods and goddesses who possessed various powers and greatly influenced ancient Greek. The goods were worshiped and sacrifices were made to them by their followers. Hera is one of the powerful ancient deities in Greek mythology. Hera was worshipped throughout the Greek world and she…

Impact of Simple Words

Introduction There is no such a thing as a simple word. Severally, misunderstandings have occurred among people as a result of their word diction and argument context. While many people believe that bombastic words make an argument or passing information complex, simple words cause more confusion and impair messages more…

Linguistics: Connotation and Denotation of the Word Line

Denotation can be referred to the dictionary-like definition of a word; to provide the denotation of a word is therefore to give its basic meaning. On the other hand, connotation stands for what a word implies or suggests. I consideration of connotation of a word, one goes beyond its basic…

Word Encoding Models

Word recognition refers to the ability of an individual to recognize written words with ease. There are different models that seek to explain how human beings process words. These models are based on different principles. For example, there is the multistream model that is based on several processing channels and…

Infinite Regression in Franz Kafka’s Works

The concept of infinite regression plays an important role in philosophy and epistemology. In many cases, this notion can be used to highlight the limitations of human cognition and people’s inability to learn the truth about reality. Furthermore, it is particularly suitable for describing contradictions that an individual is not…

Gestures and Signed Language Used in Cartoons

Introduction What is language? We all have a notion that a language is a tool of communication or the main purpose of language is to convey information. Arguably, any answer to this question would certainly involve the word communication. We, therefore, consider language as a tool which the main purpose…

Bilingualism: Development and Types of Bilingualism

Currently, the strengthening of economic, political and cultural ties between the countries has changed and continues to change the terms of the functioning and teaching of foreign languages. The knowledge of another language in the modern world is an acute need for the realization of interpersonal communication in optimal conditions….

Linguistics: Contrast of English and Chinese

Language variations between speakers of two different languages have existed for quite a long time. The variations between Chinese and English are seen in their expressions of politeness, formality, solidarity, and discourse, and genre type often cause misunderstanding between the communicating parties. For example, when a native English speaker says…