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Management Skills. Literature Review

The current literature review describes the main qualities and skills possessed by modern managers. Gillard and Price (2005) state that critical thinking is one of the main concepts and practices used by managers to grow and develop their strategic position. Good managers do much more than make good decisions, a broad view of the decision-making process provides a useful starting point from which to understand what groups must do. As managers and entrepreneurs, we should have confidence in our decisions, but it is a difficult task because of the turbulent market environment and changing economic conditions.

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Grugulis (2009) and Madsen and Musto (2004) underline that it is difficult for a manager to be confident in his decision-making because a hallmark of the modern business environment is its chaotic nature In the organization, two types of decisions can be singled out: programmed (complex) and non-programmed (routine). Non=programmed decisions require more attention and excellent decision-making skills because there are outcomes that are difficult to predict and foreshadow. To ensure effective skills, a manager should take into account the following steps; information gathering; problem innovation; option selection; implementation; evaluation; feedback, learning, and refinement. For managers and entrepreneurs, the effective planning and managing process is one of the effective decision-making tools which help to ensure confidence and effectiveness of the decision. Some public sector bodies are primarily keen on evaluation, though for reasons which have more to do with accountability than with learning. failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives, poor information search, selective bias in processing information available, and failure to work out contingency plans.

Myers et al (2004) state that in complex environment, it is really difficult for managers to have confidence in decision making. Critical thinking skills and cognitive processes are essential to get one from a particular situation to a more disengaged perspective. It is then sometimes argued that social, political, and legal institutions, along with the corporate culture and the particular roles and role responsibilities of the managers and companies in question, create a causal nexus that constrains what might consider morally appropriate behavior and often precludes the consequential avoidance of harm. In contrast to traditional decision-making,

The researches selected for analysis do not contain subjective or questionable information. All issues and problems are carefully analyzed and evaluated in terms of management theory. All decisions are affected by bounded rationality which means that managers have limited resources and time for decision making, so an ideal solution is impossible in any circumstances. Managers have imperfect and incomplete information, so they cannot objectively evaluate facts and data crucial for the decision-making. Management makes the right decisions about who to hire more often than not when an applicant screening system is effective. Management makes these correct decisions by hiring people who perform up to or exceed expectations (correct hires) and rejecting those applicants who would have been less than satisfactory performers on the job. Although management would prefer to be 100% accurate in these predictions such omniscience is impossible. The authors agree that management can make two types of wrong decisions when hiring from a group of applicants. The first mistake is to hire someone who performs below expectations on the job. These people are the incorrect hires. Failure to hire people who would have been satisfactory performers but never got the chance to show their stuff is the second mistake. These people are the incorrect nonhires. Managers are sensitive to the first type of hiring mistake because an individual performing below expectation must be retrained or terminated. Hiring mistakes of this kind cause expense and inconvenience to the organization and are highly visible.

References

Gillard, Sh., Price, J. 2007. The Competencies of Effective Project Managers: a Conceptual Analysis. International Journal of Management, 22 (1), p. 54.

Grugulis, i. 2009. Skills, Training and Human Resource Development: A Response. Economic and Labor Relations Review, 19 (1), p. 65.

Madsen, S. R., Musto, A. l. 2004. Traits, Skills and Knowledge Required of Successful Human Resource Leaders. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 9 (1), p. 76.

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Myers, M. et al. 2004. Maximizing the Human Capital Equation in Logistics: Education, Experience, and Skills. Journal of Business Logistics, 2 (1), p. 65.

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