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Mandatory HIV Testing for All Pregnant Women

Ensuring health of the nation

  • required component activities to ensure universal access to prevention and treatment of HIV
  • significant reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality
  • maximizing the ability of people with HIV to access treatment
  • preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (Bulled, 2016)
  • support the concept of “universal access” to knowledge about HIV status
  • providing antiretroviral treatment free of charge

Protecting rights of newborns

  • providing early treatment for a child
  • providing a child with the information about his possible HIV-status
  • early awareness of HIV positive status
  • linking tested people with HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services
  • reducing the number of new HIV infections (Bulled, 2016)
  • providing further consulting a child within the process of his/her growing

Possible scaling up voluntary testing

  • more willingness of women to pass voluntary HIV testing
  • more attention to the needs of adolescents in the provision of testing, counseling and follow-up services
  • more attention of pregnant women to own health
  • more attention of a woman to own health prior to pregnancy
  • more willingness of women to pass voluntary test for other infections
  • more responsible behavior of women in relation to planning pregnancy

Widening of access to HIV test and consulting

  • free HIV test for women with low income
  • free HIV test for homeless women
  • health services must be accessible and acceptable to key populations
  • ensuring referrals to other linked services
  • popularization of the necessity of HIV testing
  • covering of all communities with HIV testing
  • providing HIV testing in remote areas

Popularization of biomedical HIV prevention trials

  • widening possibilities of participants enrollment into HIV prevention preparation trials
  • more opportunities for trials in HIV treatment and prevention preparations
  • attracting public attention to HIV problem
  • contribution of development of strategies for HIV prevention
  • ensuring sociology data on the number of HIV-infected in the country
  • contributing development of national health care and prevention issues

More opportunities for social research on the problem of women health and welfare

  • possibility to reveal links between social status of a woman and her health
  • possibility to reveal links between social behavior of woman and her health
  • possibility to reveal links between health practices of women and HIV status
  • contributing to social work with women from vulnerable groups
  • contributing to social work with children from families with HIV-infected parents
  • contributing to scientific work in the considered area

Access to voluntary HIV testing and counseling

  • services for key populations at higher risk and vulnerable population
  • awareness of women on their reproductive health
  • creation of favorable social conditions for women
  • taking into account needs of vulnerable groups
  • contribution to total access to health care services
  • prophylaxis of HIV dissemination depending on the population groups

Wide range of models and approaches to HIV prevention

  • broad field of data and cases for research
  • more data on HIV transfer and prevention
  • more opportunities for clinical trials
  • more opportunities for health care policies development
  • more opportunities for panning in public health care
  • inclusion of society into policies development and assessment

The risk of implementing practice of compulsory sterilization

  • unnecessary risk to woman’ health during abortion
  • devaluation of human life, due to making abortion ‘everyday’ norm
  • some similarity to Nazi regime practices (Watkins-Hayes, 2019)
  • propaganda of eugenics philosophy
  • violation of alienable human rights of women
  • possible practice of intimidation and corruption

Violation of a woman’ right for confidentiality of personal data

  • violation of medical and health privacy
  • devaluation of human dignity and right for privacy
  • opening of the ‘field’ for applying blackmail to a woman
  • risks of appearing practice of other medical data disclosure
  • widening of practice of unauthorised access to health data
  • absence of woman’ right to protect personal medical data

Stigmatization of HIV-infected women and her child (Hoppe, 2017)

  • risk of improper treatment and harassment in case of HIV revealing
  • wide distribution of stigmatization practice
  • risk of emerging social stereotypes about children born by infected mother
  • risk of further child’ stigmatization
  • deterioration of the atmosphere in society
  • contributing to social conflicts and marginalization

Violation of deontology principles

  • blurring of deontology boundaries and frames
  • modifying the concept of biomedical ethics
  • changes in health care education foundation
  • occurrence of turbulence in biomedical ethics environment
  • risk of devaluation of patients’ dignity
  • risk of disrespecting to health care ethics

Prevention of HIV infection spread

  • tested women are expected to manifest more responsible sexual behavior (Ofori, 2018)
  • HIV-positive women will receive treatment and virus will be suppressed in their bodies
  • possibilities of virus dissemination will be reduced
  • positive results for public health in the country
  • decreasing of other infections spread
  • appearing of best practices to be used over the world

Making changes to corporate behavior codes in health care facilities

  • contradictions of established principles and new practices
  • impossibility to change codes of behavior in all health care facilities simultaneously
  • risk of entropy in health care system due to changes
  • risk of ambiguousness of the codes
  • lack of professionals to draw up new codes
  • risk of resisting to change during implementation of new codes

Need for competent approach

  • taking into account all pros and cons
  • forecasting for the future consequences
  • mechanisms for implementation
  • addressing challenges
  • working out directions for further development
  • taking into account interests of stakeholders


Bulled, N. (2016). Prescribing HIV prevention: Bringing culture into global health communication. Routledge.

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Hoppe, T. (2017). Punishing disease: HIV and the criminalization of sickness. University of California Press.

Ofori, K. (2018). HIV testing and counselling: Among youth of Fanteakwa district of Ghana. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.

Watkins-Hayes, C. (2019). Remaking a life: How women living with HIV/AIDS confront inequality. University of California Press.

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