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Marketing Theory With a Strategic Orientation


In the marketing world today, the area of contemporary marketing has become so broad that we have arrived at the accurate point in time to be familiar with the things which are related to the important writings so that the applied choice model in marketing can be applied to the different forms of the creative viewpoint of the theories and the extensions.

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The dispute facing the contemporary marketing people who are paying attention in consumer preference modeling is that there are at least two contrasting and complex literature to be read critically. We have, therefore, tried in the marketing field dealing with problems and issues which are premeditated in marketing. We have also tried to include effort that has appeared in print as we geared up this paper (Felton, 1959).

As a science, Marketing is a technological or applied restraint, for example it is an art or applied science, that intends at illustrating the official disposition or the common principles by which to generate, endorse and deliver the products which satisfy the consumers. It is also a science dedicated in knowing the means by how to accomplish the goal of being prepared to the opportunities that may arise. Furthermore on the discussion of contemporary marketing, it records the activities of the achievements of the past developers of marketing. We may say that the history of marketing is really full of value to exemplify the theoretical principles of marketing and to offer approximate approach into the vent that may be encountered in the up comings (Zirger, 1990).


Ansoff Matrix Model

Being into the marketing world, of course especially when you own a business firm, you want changes for your business which you think will benefit the whole system. For a lot of unexpected reasons, the owner will then need to get the economies of scale, have a lot of money for the investors in your company, or may be become well-known for the product brand that you have. And for those considerations, as a sole business holder, you may want some innovations such as changing the concept of your company or may be the career. With that in mind, you want your business to take a larger path into the scene; a lot of ideas can be formulated for your business and for your career as well.

Thinking new products, new techniques for the market, new channels of distribution, or even new campaigns for marketing can be done for the company while acquiring new skills, positions and being open to more huge industries is good for the career. To be able to develop such ideas into a real one, you could use a strategic approach which will help you to evaluate the options one has and decide what is the best ideas for the growth and benefit of your company and career as well. In that sense, the Ansoff Matrix Model is an approach that can be used (Day et al., 1983).

The presentation of the Ansoff Matrix illustrates the products and the alternatives for market which is available to an organisation. In this approach, the customers are the definition for the market and the things purchased by the customers are referred to as items (Aaker, 1988). In other writings, the Ansoff matrix model is also called as the product matrix or it could also be as simple as a market matrix. It submits on the factors involved in the matrix which can be used to be able to identify and study the choices that are available for the company in a general view.

Ansoff matrix is a helpful outline for looking at probable stratagem to lessen the gap between where the business firm may do not have a change in the techniques and what the objectives of the company are. The choices in the market matrix are primarily different from Ansoff matrix model in the sense that it does not only have the ideas of creating new products and make it known for the target market as well as expanding to a more diverse market but includes discovering the possibilities of shifting into a different kind of market which is really not in the same category as the previous one (Aaker, 1988).

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The determination of the objective of an organisation gives the process of setting and gives the foundation of directional policy for the future growth of the company. It also used as a paragon for setting the goals along with other matrix like Porter, BCG, DPM matrix, Gap Analysis and the like. The Ansoff matrix model is also a tool for market auditing and it brings about four market factors; the market penetration, product development, diversification and the product development.

Thus, the Ansoff Model is applicable to the small business firms and the larger ones. The growth matrix could also be used to decide about the strategies or techniques for the businesses to think of ways on how to be able to maximize their product and market.

This model can be used by either the small business firms or the large businesses. In the market penetration, this is where the business eyed into the technique of selling the products they have at this point in time into the markets which are in time also.

This one is important because providing innovations for the existing customers are likely profitable and less time consuming rather than gathering new ones. Some business like the HSBC bank is using this strategy by engaging into long lasting relationships with their customers by getting their trust that they would serve them for lifetime. In the market development strategy, the business sells the products that they have at this point in time into a new market. For an instance, a business is able to develop new uses of their product for a different market and in that way, they will attract new customers while retaining the other customers that they already have.

Comparing this to the third phase of the Ansoff Matrix, the product development depicts innovating on new products but still they manipulate the selling process in the existing markets. Frequently one such strategy shifts the business into markets and towards the customers that are originally not produced for them. Diversification is the name given to the growth strategy where a business markets new products in new markets. It is important to note that even unrelated diversification often has some synergy with the original business of the company (Bunn, 1984).

Direct Marketing Outline

Creating and manipulating a Direct Marketing campaign can be a not-so-easy one and consumes your time a lot. More difficulties arise when considering the factors such as the seasonality, the way it will be handled and the collaboration with other elements of the marketing mix such as the Place or the distribution of the products, the Product or the items available for purchases of the consumers, Promotion or the strategies that will be used in selling the products and Pricing which comprises the financial matters of the business (Bunn, 1984).

Introduction to the product or service chosen 20%

To begin with, first you have the interest of your target market if they will be able to buy your products or services perhaps. Satisfying the needs and wants of the customers will be the main point of the criteria in choosing the best products that you will be selling.

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You have to consider the packaging designs, the materials used in your product, the size and quantity. The innovations for the products should also be taken into account because as what a business might face in the consequence of changing markets or the season, the products should then be ready to have the alternating techniques which will continue its cycle to grow and be available for the customers even though they can not compete in the market for a very long time.

With that in mind, the chosen product for this paper is the Avon Products which is actually a business corporation wherein they sell primarily cosmetics, perfume, and toys in the market for about 135 countries all over the world. The products of Avon specifically include lipsticks, foundations, skin lotions, anti-aging cream, perfumes, as well as jewelry and clothing. Though for a fact that most of the products of Avon are for women, they are still developing and creating more lines of products for men and children; toys, clothes, baby colognes and cosmetics suited for the young ones, perfumes for men, clothes and some gadgets to be used generally by men.

This is the preferred one because of its flexibility in the market considering the factor of having a target market of both men and women of all ages. As to the seasons, it is not a dilemma since the products are not intended for a particular time but are relatively for a continuous use if not a need but still they it runs in the middle of needs-wants of the people.

Explanation of the two tools used for the campaign 40%

The two tools that will be used in the campaign would be a personal or direct selling and direct response television marketing. Direct selling is the way of selling your products personally or by a face-to-face manner with the customer. In that way of selling directly to the people, you should have salespeople who will act as the channel of distribution and will be able to approach the potentials customers for your product. In fact, this process of selling is an effective way to give the customers more ideas about the products personally. This will not benefit the products alone but also the positive views or feedback of the people to the business itself.

Another tool to be used is the direct response television marketing which is a related kind of infomercial which is something like a television commercial that has a length of a common program in television or in other countries it is also known as TV shopping. It pertains to a presentation that will deliver essential information to be able to persuade or convince the customers to buy the product and build a positive outlook among the line of the whole product. In addition to, this kind of tool for the campaign is called direct response marketing instead of direct marketing solely because the tool will give the opportunity to the audience to respond directly upon watching the campaign through calling or in the internet. Thus, it will then result in a telemarketing process of campaigning also.

Justification of the selection of these methods 20%

The methods were selected accordingly because it suited the marketing strategies of Aon Corporation. Avon is known as a direct selling company which obviously aims at selling directly to the customers and possible clients. In this kind of selling, the salesperson is called an Avon Lady or an Avon Man. The salespeople only have to have catalogs or brochures which they will use in presenting their products and further give information about it.

It is convenient and will benefit both the customer and the Avon Lady; the customer in a sense that he or she does not have to go shopping in the stores and it will save time and money and the seller because actually he or she does not have to tend a particular store, and she manages her own time. This is the same as the concept in the direct response television marketing. Practicability and convenience are the factors which comprise the techniques for the campaign.

Thought out timing for the campaign 10%

The thought out timing for the campaign should start in the beginning of a month since the catalogs and brochures held Avon change monthly. The campaign will determine its effectiveness of it at the end of the month through the response of the customers.

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Accurate cost summary/response rate 10%

Initially, the business would conduct a trial campaign so knowing the accurate cost summary should comprise the finances for the catalogs and brochures to be used in the campaign and the finances for the direct response television marketing in just a small target audience. When pricing television marketing, you need to consider the costs of these two things: the cost of producing the commercial and the cost for airing. It has been expected that the cost of producing a 30-second commercial is $350,000. And the brochures will cost $50, 000 which comprises all the materials up to the printing and binding each.

The response rate is expected to be like the success of the previous rates that Avon has. The television advertisers calculate the effectiveness of the campaigns by making a comparison of the audience rating points conveyed against their audience rating point objectives. It is then expected to have if not a hundred percent but at least above the half percent of the total.

Public Relations as an essential tool for Marketing

The answer to this question “Should the limits on marketing activity be confined just in the advertising standards?”, the answer to that is no! Definitely, there are different factors for the business to achieve its goals not only by the advertising standards but also the Public Relations.

Public Relations are a form of communication that is basically into building rapport for the public understanding and acceptance. It somehow deals with the things to discuss rather than the products that a business offers and the services as well. The reason that public relations are in this kind of approach, they ascend from advertising since advertising is a publicity that is paid for. The PR is used to build harmonious relationships between the various individuals inside and outside the company.

Pr is also into building the image of the company. Public relations as what is said earlier uses publicity that does not require payment in a large variety of media and more often than not develops the interests of the individuals not the products. Unlike in advertising, Public relations illustrate the different techniques that a company uses to distribute messages about its products and services, or overall or other people who may have interest in the company. The spot of public relations is to make the target market think accordingly about the business and its offerings (Felton, 1959).

The business firms should practice on balancing the use of advertising and public relations because the two have different goals and objectives that would benefit the company. Advertising promotes the business indeed but matter fact; the main goal of advertising is to create sales and generate profit. While in public relations, the main goal is to build rapport with the people to have a good impression of the business as well as the thoughts that they may have for the company.

Actually, public relations lessen the gap between the bad impressions in a company. Another thing is, PR is a good way to practice before advertising a product or a business. It is like surveying whether people or specifically the target market would patronize the items that a business will open for the people to the market. Having said that goodwill promotes goodwill and harmonious relationship between the business and the target market, it personally relates to them unlike advertising.

The advantage of PR from advertising is in that way, advertising does not listens to the views and comments of the people or it does not have a personal approach with how the people will react to it as long as it advertised a particular thing. But of course, the Public relations is not only between the business and its target market but also between the employees inside the business firms. The relationship between the bosses and the subordinates should also be viewed as one major factor in order to have a good job for the benefit of all (Felton, 1959).

Critics for a non- profit Organisation

To cite an example to critically evaluate the marketing communications program of a not fro profit organization, The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is used as an example. Primarily, the RSPCA is an organization which aims to promote the welfare of the animals in England. It gets its funds from the donations of the people who voluntarily commit themselves in contributing for the safety of animals and giving them a fair treatment.

It gives kindness to the animals who received a cruelty treatment from the people who do not give justice to the animals. The organization was founded as the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals or SPCA in 1824 (Brown, 1974).

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals proposes its mission such as having a strong branches in other regional, national and international organisations devoted in giving a public service, providing an effective assistance of the sufferings of the animal and promoting the law. Another one is working with conviction to lessen the dangerous impacts on the activities created by humans and campaigning for the application of ethics or good manners in the approach of the good treatment for the animals. Also, the RSPCA is working hard for the highest levels of its ability and efficacy in advocating its goals. But on the other hand, this not-for-profit organization also has controversies to face, the organization has been criticized for being prompt in having witnesses before the prepared statements on trials (Brown, 1974).

The RSPCA also aims at advising the organizations and the government as well on the welfare of the animal which is based on the UK and European standards. The organisation heeds to appeals for the assistance in such cases like oil spills by sending experts to help solve a particular problem. The charity also aims at extending the help into training the people who have the passion in contributing for the welfare of animal all over the world with the use of a little resource especially the funds to be used (Brown, 1974).

Examining the given details about the non profit organization which is the RSPCA, the marketing communications program of the charity depicts primarily on the things which will benefit the animals of course but still, it has something to do with various things that the people would be interested to at the same time. The RSPCA campaigns through the use of public relations and is able to gain something without a lot of funds needed. Let us take considerations into the promotion or publicity of the organization, they have their own site in the internet and provides advocacies for the welfare of the animals that are treated in an unfair manner.

The target audience of this not for profit organization is the people who appears to be passionate in caring for the animals or may be the experts such as the veterinarians and other people who has the capability of providing the needs of the animals for a better living. The tone of their campaign is like being into the authority of saying what is not or appropriate for the rules and regulations in making the laws for the welfare of the animals (Brown, 1974).

The campaign is actually just appropriate in attaining its objectives because the charity is performing the best for the progress of the advocacies that they are promoting. In this case, the funds are not relatively an issue or a hindrance for them to continue promoting the things that will benefit of not only the animals but also the people who are engaged in this organization (Deshpande, 1984).


Analyzing the points discussed in this paper should relate to the viewpoints of the marketing approaches that have to be considered in putting up a business. To be able to publicize a certain business whether it coordinates with the products or the markets at a given point of time, one should know the different aspects outside the business and the tools that can be used in order to achieve a promotion that will best suit the business firm.

However, the marketing strategies that may be used got a lot of risks and it is normal for all the businesses whether it is small or large (Boulding et al., 1990). One should be prepared for the consequences that the firms will undergo. The market may be in the negative side and turns out to be radical in the considerations of the element for the cycle of the business.


Aaker, D. A., Strategic Market Management, 2nd Ed, Wiley, New York, 1988.

Boulding, W. and R. Staelin, “Environment, Market Share, and Market Power,” Management Sci., 36, 10 (1990), 1160-1177.

Brown A., Who Cares For Animals: 150 years of the RSPCA, 1974.

Bunn, D. Applied Decision Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

Day, G. S. and R. Wensley, “Marketing Theory with a Strategic Orientation,” J. Marketing, 47 (1983), 101-10.

Deshpande, R. and A. Parasuraman, “Organizational Culture and Marketing Effectiveness,” in P. F. Anderson and M. J. Ryan (Eds.), Scientific Methods in Marketing, American Marketing Association, Chicago, IL, 1984, 137-140.

Felton, A., “Making the Marketing Concept Work,” Harvard Business Review, 37 (1959), 55-65.

Zirger, B. J. and M. A. Madique, “A Model of New Product Development: An Empirical Test,” Management Sci., 36 (1990), 867- 883.

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