Mortality and Morbidity Rates
Apart from the continuous development of the medical sphere and technology, mortality and mortality rates for some illnesses and diseases remain high, and in the context of this paper, a situation in Miami, Florida, will be discussed. In the first place, it is vital to focus on mortality since it is one of the critical factors that emphasize the need to develop effective prevention strategies.
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For example, cancer, heart failure, accidents, and stroke put Florida at ranks of 37, 35, 38, and 43 respectfully (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). Thus, it could be said that along with natural causes of death, homicide, firearm death, and drug overdose cannot be underestimated and can be referred to as the major problems in the state (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). These matters can be explained by the issues with safety in the region while implying the need to enhance homeland security.
As for morbidity, the Bureau of Epidemiology (2016) claims that the most common diseases are sexually transmitted ones such as HIV, AIDS, and chlamydia while they tend to be highly prevalent among adults from 24 to 54 years old. Apart from the gradually increased number of reported cases of sexually transmitted illnesses, tuberculosis became less dangerous, as since 1994 its incidents were registered mostly among the individuals of foreign origin (Bureau of Epidemiology, 2016).
In turn, high awareness does not decrease the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C, lime disease, and salmonellosis (Bureau of Epidemiology, 2016). Simultaneously, the area experienced peaks in Ebola in 2014, but a combination of these factors can be explained by Florida’s geographical location, climate, and high percentage and popularity of recreational water parks that create a favorable environment for the development of these diseases and illnesses. To minimize these cases, the government of the state focuses on the development of effective prevention measures to diminish the adverse consequences and underline the importance of vaccination.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
Overall, it could be said that the analysis conducted in the previous section can unveil the most important insights and determine a rationale for the necessity of research in some spheres. One of the most common quantitative research questions can be formulated as “Is there a relationship between parents’ education and level of vaccination among children and their mortality rates?”. In this case, it could be said that the independent variable is parents’ education about immunization and vaccination. In turn, the dependent variables are the level of vaccination among children and their mortality rates, as their values are expected to be influenced by the education of parents concerning the existence, importance, and effectiveness of vaccines.
Thus, when focusing on the hypothesis, based on the assumptions indicated above it could be formulated as “There was a higher level of vaccination and a lower degree of the mortality rate among children, whose parents were educated (experimental group) compared with others, who were not”. It demonstrates a cause-and-effect correlation between variables while one of them is manipulated and can be referred to as casual. Meanwhile, it can be viewed as complex due to several dependent variables such as mortality rate and degree of vaccination among children. In turn, this hypothesis can also be considered as directional, as it is supported by some studies while it is also measurable and can be controlled during the research trial (testable or researchable).
At the same time, when designing a qualitative question, it can be formulated as “What are the reasons for the refusal to vaccinate their children among adults (24-60 years old)?”. This topic has been under vehement discussion for several years, and the potential causes pertain to family beliefs, risks of illness or diseases, the effectiveness of a vaccine, and understanding of the functioning of the child’s body (Harmsen et al., 2013). Nonetheless, the conducted research only provides a general understanding of this phenomenon in the healthcare industry, and this matter underlines the need to discover this topic in detail in the state of Florida. At the same time, previous studies did not cover the theme from the perspective of parents’ awareness, and it is one of the most critical lenses and viewpoints to review. Based on the research question, the independent variable is a diverse range of reasons driving parents’ decisions while dependent ones are vaccination rates among children.
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In this case, the research hypothesis for the qualitative question can be formulated as “Along with the most common reasons for refusal of vaccination such as family’s lifestyle and perceptions of child’s body, parents’ awareness of vaccination can be considered as one of the defining factors”. In this instance, the hypothesis can be viewed as associative since it is rather descriptive and does not discover the cause-and-effect relationship. In this case, it will simply try to unveil various aspects including the level of awareness and education leading to particular outcomes and parents’ behavior. Due to the extended number of variables, it could be regarded as complex. In turn, it could be considered as non-directional due to the lack of support from previous studies. Nonetheless, it still has all the required background to establish a foundation for research (research hypothesis).
Bureau of Epidemiology. (2016). Florida morbidity statistics report.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Stats of the state of Florida.
Harmsen, I., Mollema, L., Ruiter, R., Paulussen, T., Melker, H., & Kok, G. (2013). Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: A qualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1183-1185.