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Motivation Types and Leadership Styles in Nursing

Internal and External Motivation Factors

Categories Extrinsic
Job Content Characteristics 1) Challenging nature of work,
2) Opportunity of advance,
3) Explicit goals,
4) Effective performance appraisal,
5) Task significance.
1) Meaningful work,
2) Compliance with personal goals,
3) Creativity opportunities,
4) Sense of competence,
5) Increasing work effectiveness.
Work Environment 1) Supportive organizational culture,
2) Job security,
3) Teamwork,
4) Performance autonomy,
5) Empowerment.
1) Perceived personal value,
2) Feeling of accomplishment,
3) Good work-life balance,
4) Minimized environmental turbulences,
5) Professionalism.
Leadership 1) Respectful communication,
2) Role modeling,
3) Transparency,
4) High level of involvement and concern for employees,
5) Effective recognition and reward systems.
1) Sense of self-efficacy,
2) Sense of empowerment,
3) Awareness of job goals,
4) Received feedback,
5) Earned respect.
Benefits 1) Financial incentives,
2) Location of the setting,
3) Insurance,
4) Well-paid time off,
5) Pension.
1) Perceived rewards.

The research in motivation in nurses suggests that excellent quality patient outcomes are possible when which condition exists?

According to Dunn (2015), “research shows enhanced patient outcomes when employees are motivated to perform at their highest levels” (p. 40). Thus, a better quality of care is possible when a nurse is internally motivated to achieve positive results and grow professionally. The role of external motivational factors is important as well. However, their effects may be impermanent.

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What types of employee characteristics can demotivators lead to?

Dunn (2015) states that “demotivators decrease employees’ desires to contribute positively to the organization” (p. 40). Specific effects of demotivation include frustration, stress, inflexibility, self-doubt, and so on. Therefore, managers need to identify possible dissatisfaction among employees and encourage constructive discussion of problems.

What is the term “organizational citizenship” related to, and why is it important in the employee’s role in motivation?

Overall, organizational citizenship equals excellent nurse motivation. Organizational citizenship implies a high level of nurses’ engagement in the organizational culture and processes. It is possible to achieve when nurses’ interests and needs are perfectly aligned with the hospital’s ones.

What is the description for each of the three leadership styles?

Transformational leadership can help organizations develop a positive employee culture by empowering subordinates through inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, encouragement of innovativeness, and consideration of individual differences (Goncalves, 2013). Authoritarian leadership is characterized by rigidity, strict control, and discipline. Such leaders mainly focus on the desired results. Within organizations, authoritative leaders tend to ignore their subordinates’ social and psychological needs and, thus, contribute to the decrease in job satisfaction. By contrast, laissez-faire leadership is characterized by low exactingness, connivance, lack of discipline, and rigor. It is associated with a share of managerial passivity and loss of control over subordinates by endowing them with complete freedom of action.

Why has the transformational leadership style of such importance when considering motivation in the workplace? How does empowerment fit into this aspect of leadership?

Comparing to authoritarian leadership, which employs the principles of coercion and determined hierarchy, transformative leaders usually influence people/subordinates through storytelling and sharing the visions of positive changes. Moreover, they demonstrate respect for individual autonomy. Transformative leaders do not strictly require employees to comply with rigid norms but provide them with the freedom to act on their own. They recognize staff members’ achievements and abilities and contribute to their development. In this way, transformational leadership can have a favorable effect on the overall organizational atmosphere and culture because it encourages creativity and promotes mutual respect. Therefore, transformative and democratic leadership styles can be especially effective in the environments requiring innovation because they support self-motivation and self-expression.

What is the difference between job satisfaction and motivation?

Job satisfaction and employee motivation are deeply interrelated. Job satisfaction can be described as a combination of psychological and environmental conditions that cause an employee to enjoy or dislike his/her job. It is a complex concept that comprises a set of multifactorial perceptions of the job and the workplace. It can be determined by multiple factors, including professional respect and other attributes of leader-member exchange, communication, and relationships with colleagues, monetary compensation, etc. At the same time, motivation arises when all employee’s needs are met or when he/she is provided with an opportunity to fulfill them. Overall, greater job satisfaction usually leads to higher motivation and, consequently, better work outcomes and positive organizational behavior.

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