Nanotechnology refers to the study of tiny structures that have a size of less than 0.1 nm. This technology is believed to be extremely useful in health care to deliver medication through blood or treat various types of tumors. Therefore, it is important to research the capabilities of the application of nanotechnology in hospitals and determine the main working principles of nanorobots. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the recent innovations in the field of nanotechnology. The main sections will include the working principles of nanorobots and the application of nanotechnology in hospitals.
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Working Principles of Nano Robots
The development of nanotechnology caused the increasing number of surgical interventions with the help of nanorobots. They are used to reach the remote regions of the human body for treating tumors by targeted chemotherapy, as well as for catheterization. It is stated that such targets in the human body can be accessed through the system of small capillaries located near the selected region . It is possible to control and navigate nanorobots using the MRI system. It assists in visualizing the anatomy of soft tissues, which is useful for the application of the modern technologies in treating with the help of tiny devices inserted into human blood.
It is also possible to use nanorobots for local sensing and manipulation. For example, they can be used in nano-biotechnology to analyze the functions of the virus that causes influenza and its incubation in a cell, as well as how it infects the other cells influencing their properties . There are many methods developed to manipulate a single virus cell with the help of nanorobots on different types of microscopes. Various forms of manipulation, such as electrical and magnetic forces, are used. The scientists also developed the methods to measure the temperature and other conditions in the microchip environment. Therefore, it is possible to state that nanotechnology greatly assists in developing the new methods of treatment of various diseases.
Application of Nanotechnology in Hospitals
The tiny sizes of nanorobots are believed to provide additional advantages in treating particular diseases providing the further development of Medicine. Some researchers emphasize that chemical robots used as artificial cells that can move autonomously may be used in providing more effective delivery of Medicine to the patient . It is noted that such nanorobots are based on self-organization principles used to deliver drugs to infected cells that usually have the properties and characteristics which are different from normal cells. Therefore, it is possible to use such chemical robots in hospitals for direct treating of cancer cells by changing their properties and prevent the growth of the tumor.
Nanorobots might also be used for radiation treatment of cancer, which is believed to provide a complete cure. Some researchers note that it is possible to install radiation isotopes in the body of nanorobot to provide its safe reaching of the targeted cancer cells of the tumor . It is noted that when a robot reaches the bad cells, its cover opens, providing direct treatment of the tumor. Therefore, nanotechnology is regarded as a potentially successful method of treatment for patients with cancer.
The purpose of this paper was to provide a literature review of the recent innovations in the field of nanotechnology. The main techniques that use nanorobots in Medicine were explored, as well as the capabilities of their application in the hospitals. It was beneficial to study the article about MRI systems used for the control and navigation of magnetic nanoparticles because it described the main principles used for target interventions through capillaries to the specific regions of the human body. It would be beneficial to do further research focusing on other diseases except for cancer that might be treated with the help of nanorobots.
- A. Fumihito, and M. Hisataka. “Nanorobotic manipulation and sensing for biomedical applications” in Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques. C. Mavroidis, and A. Ferreira, Eds. New-York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, pp. 169-190.
- H. S. Cho, and T. H. Woo. “Conceptual design of nano-robotics for carrying the radioisotope material in the nuclear industry.” Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 80, pp. 429-433. 2015.
- I. Lagzi, (2012). “Chemical robotics—chemotactic drug carriers.” Open Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 377-382.
- S. Martel, O. Felfoul, J. B. Mathieu, A. Chanu, S. Tamaz, M. Mohammadi,… and N. Tabatabaei. “MRI-based medical nanorobotic platform for the control of magnetic nanoparticles and flagellated bacteria for target interventions in human capillaries.” The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 28, pp. 1169-1182. 2009.