Guidelines to follow during negotiations
The basic ones include: First detach the people involved from the problem at hand, recognizing those negotiators are human beings with emotions, have diverse backgrounds and viewpoints, and strongly held values. Secondly, focus on the interests rather than the positions held by each party. Particularly because positions often obscure the objective of the negotiation which is to gratify the underlying interests. Thirdly come up with a variety of possible solutions before you decide on which to settle on. This is important because during negotiations there is usually a lot of pressure and hence trying to decide on options at that point narrows your vision. Lastly insist on objective criteria as a basis for your results which is most important in a situation where the interests of both parties are directly opposed (Fisher, Ury & Patton).
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Steps of the negotiation process
First, there is preparation for the negotiation, like in our case study Randal visited CTI Company to evaluate its worth issues and acquire information related to the negotiation. Secondly, there is conducting the negotiation where you bargain by using tactics to help in improving your negotiation position. It also involves inquiring information from your adversaries on their interest and you stating the same and what each of you is willing to give out. The third stage is completing the negotiation which involves going through the agreement to ensure that both parties agree on their responsibilities and benefits. Eventually, there is preparing and organizing final documents that will help in developing a plan for implementation and a contract (Institute of Supply chain management, n.d).
Guidelines of effective communication in negotiation
First watch the body language of the other party to tell whether they are nervous, angry, or satisfied because it tells more than words. Listen actively and make use of body language for it shows interest in what the other is saying. Ask questions strategically by deducing your questions from what the speaker has just said to bring out the next natural topic. Ensure what you say is specific, measurable, achievable realistic, and time-bound (Nixon, 2005).
Type of questions during negations
First, we have common ground questions which are meant to help the parties have a common ground. Heated questions reflect a great deal of feeling on the person answering. Mirror-ask or reflective questions which help reflect on the other’s point of view or yours. Strategic questions which are deduced from the last statement said and used to get to the next topic (Spoelstar & Pienaar, 1999)
Characteristics of negotiation styles
Avoidance style where one party dislikes conflict and will avoid them as much as they can. Comprise style where a party’s main objective is to maintain a good relationship, therefore, they are quick to compromise so that the other party gets what they want hence maintaining their relationship. The accommodative style is where one party seeks the other’s problem as a means of solving the conflict. Competitive style the parties always seek a win-win as the other party loses and also wants to be in control. The problem-solver style where a win-win situation is sought and means to make the agreement fair (Wright, n.d)
Guidelines to follow when negotiation becomes challenging
Using tactics can be useful at such times for instance use of ambiguity to postpone an issue that can be a hindrance in reaching an agreement for example using ambiguous statements and definitions to offer flexibility and time needed to reach an agreement. In case of emotions identify and understand them whether they are yours or the other party’s, make them open and acknowledge them as justifiable (Churchman, 1995).
Churchman, D (1995). Negotiation: process, tactics, theory. Maryland: University Press of America.
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Fisher, R Ury, W and Patton, B (1991). Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Institute of Supply chain management (n.d). Web.
Nixon, P (2005). Negotiation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Spoelstra, H, I, J and Pienaar, W, D (1999). Negotiation: Theories, Strategies and Skills. Lansdowne, South Africa: Juta and Company Ltd.
Wright, C (n.d). Web.