The work of nurses is almost always associated with moral and ethical aspects since apart from nursing, patients need an individual approach depending on the type and characteristics of their diseases. Moreover, some legal issues caused by the need to work with people may be affected in the nursing process. One of the most vulnerable groups of the population is people with physical and mental disabilities, and the task of junior medical personnel is to provide them with full-fledged assistance and at the same time not violate any norms of morality and law.
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For the staff of the clinics to efficiently perform their duties about the disabled, necessary training should be conducted. According to Marks and Sisirak (2017), it is significant to raise awareness among nurses that people with disabilities need increased attention and constant aid. Certainly, rudeness, indifference, and other violations of morality are unacceptable in the process of nursing practice. However, when working with people with disabilities, it is essential to develop a specific methodology since these people are unable to help themselves on their own. The responsibility of nurses, in this case, is high because it is important for them to not only effectively perform their work but also to provide moral support to those who have significant physical or mental disabilities. As Marks and Sisirak (2017) remark, such people experience severe psychological problems. Stress and depression often arise because of limited opportunities, which can lead to dangerous and irreparable consequences, for example, suicide. Therefore, the task of the nursing staff is not limited to standard care and provides for quality and comprehensive assistance.
Eczema is the condition that affects the whole body and is manifested as inflammatory skin rashes, accompanied by burning and itching. The disease prevails among the pediatric population: it occurs in nearly 20% and only in about 3% of adults (Nutten, 2015). Immune changes, exposure to microorganisms, hypovitaminosis, the failure of the endocrine system can provoke the disease; hereditary predisposition also has its effect (Gilliam, Madden, Sendowski, Mioduszewski, & Duderstadt, 2016). In allergic genesis, the allergic reaction to repeated allergen exposure is represented as a manifestation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in suppressing the cellular and humoral immunity units. With reduced skin tolerance to irritants, a non-allergic inflammatory eczematous reaction occurs in the areas of repeated exposure to sub-toxic agents. In endogenous (atopic) eczema, genetically predetermined constitutional influences (regulating immune, hormonal and neurovegetative functions) prevail and lead to impairments in cellular and humoral units of immunity (Darsow, Eyrich, & Ring, 2013).
The diagnosis is performed through a standard dermatological examination, e.g., by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and other tools. The treatment of chronic eczema is carried out with the help of anti-allergic drugs and vitamin B (Gilliam et al., 2016). In the case of acute and episodic eczema, it is necessary to use compresses on boric acid, which help to eliminate foci of skin lesions.
Patients should be instructed to determine the factors leading to aggravation of symptoms, e.g., intake of certain foods, contact with domestic animals, dust pollution, pollen, household chemicals, etc. Since eczema is often caused by nervous disorders, it is essential to observe the regime of the day and, if possible, to avoid stressful situations. As for the assessment of treatment effectiveness, it is significant to monitor whether redness covers a large surface of the skin or not. Vitamin therapies and the intake of antiallergic drugs are effective if the disease starts to manifest less often, and the area of the skin lesion becomes less extensive.
Darsow, U., Eyrich, K., & Ring, J. (2013). Eczema pathophysiology. Web.
Gilliam, A. E., Madden, N., Sendowski, M., Mioduszewski, M., & Duderstadt, K. G. (2016). Use of Eczema Action Plans (EAPs) to improve parental understanding of treatment regimens in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 74(2), 375-377.
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Hon, K. L., Pong, N. H., Poon, T. C., Chan, D. F., Leung, T. F., Lai, K. Y.,… Luk, N. M. (2015). Quality of life and psychosocial issues are important outcome measures in eczema treatment. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 26(1), 83-89.
Marks, B., & Sisirak, J. (2017). Nurse practitioners promoting physical activity: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(1), e1-e5.
Nutten, S. (2015). Atopic dermatitis: Global epidemiology and risk factors. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 66(1), 8-16.