This paper focuses on the health promotion model introduced by Nola Pender in the 20th century. This model is aimed at protecting a given population against health problems (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452). This model perceives health as a dynamic concept which is merely characterized by the absence of disease in the human body but by behavioral traits which affect human health. In detail, the model perceives health as a continuous process of improving a person’s well-being. In this regard, the health promotional model undertakes a collaborative approach, characterized by the interaction of people and the environment. This interaction is aimed at improving the overall well-being of people. The health promotional model perceives health from three dimensions: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and behavioral outcomes (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452)..
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The health promotional model perceives people as unique beings with unique characteristics which predetermine their health actions. The motivational aspects of good health is therefore determined by behavioral-specific knowledge, but the variables can be defined by changing nursing procedures to suit the needs of a specific individual (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452). Individual health promoting behaviors define the end-point of the health promotional model and they should amount to improved health and improved human functionality. At the end of the process, a better quality of life should be realized. However, short-term behavioral demand may inhibit the overall long-term desirable health behaviors (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452).
The health promotional model is based on several assumptions which guarantee its outcome. For instance, the model assumes that, people are always willing to improve their behaviors (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452). It also assumes that people’s interaction with the environment is aimed at improving the environment and the overall well-being of the people. The health promotional model also assumes that, health practitioners are an integral part of people’s personal growth development (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452). Here, health professionals should be present in most stages of human development. Finally, the model assumes that, people’s interaction with the environment is an integral part of personal behavior change (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452)..
The health promotional model is chosen because this paper focuses on behavioral elements of human behavior. Similarities are hereby evident because the health promotion model also focuses on the behavioral elements of personal well-being (Marriner-Tomey, 2006, p. 452).. Moreover, the model is appropriate for this study because it perceives health from a holistic point of view. It does not perceive health from a “disease” point of view, but a personal well-being point of view. This is the rationale for this model.
Factors Affecting Health Issue and Population
This paper focuses on health promotional campaigns aimed at ensuring there is reduced drug prevalence and sustainable community efforts in the elimination of drug abuse and enforcement of drug laws in a community set up. Since this mandate is extensive, there are several political, organizational, environmental and cultural elements affecting this task. On the political front, it is evident that, non-governmental organizations working towards sensitizing the society on the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, operate with very minimal external influence (Perry, 1996, p. 1). This means that, such organizations are not subject to any higher body, other than themselves. Partly, this observation is caused by the fact that, the non-governmental organizations are not funded by the government of any affiliate institution. They source funds from partners and well-wishers (Perry, 1996, p. 1). This may hinder the implementation of new strategies in the reduction of drug abuse and alcohol abuse. Another unrelated political issue may be the resistance of drug networks to the health promotional campaigns aimed at sensitizing the society against drug and alcohol abuse. This resistance may manifest in different ways, but beyond doubt, the risk involves a complete sabotage of the health promotional campaign (Perry, 1996, p. 1).
On the cultural front, there may be resistance from various sections of the society regarding the sensitization of the effects of drug and alcohol abuse in the community. This may be evidenced because of the role drugs and alcohol play in the society varies from community to community (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). In some cultures, alcohol is perceived as a means of celebration and a core component of any social gathering. With such cultural considerations, there may be resistance to the health promotional campaign.
On the organizational front, the health promotional campaign may be undermined by existing organizations which profit from the sale of drugs or alcohol (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). For instance, alcohol manufacturing companies are likely to distance themselves from such health promotional campaigns because they will affect their profit margins. In other times, such companies may understate the severity of health implications associated with excessive alcohol consumption, and therefore, undermine health promotional campaigns (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000).
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There are several ways to curb the above challenges. In formulating a desirable health promotional campaign, it is important to ensure there is adequate political support from government (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). This support is aimed at curbing organizational resistance to health promotional campaigns by ensuring organizations with vested interest do not interfere with the campaigns (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). Moreover, the government can ensure organizations comply with health promotional requirements always (through legislative requirements). In curbing cultural challenges, a lot of sensitization campaigns should be done before rolling out the health promotional campaign (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). This activity prepares people for the health promotional campaign. For instance, if people had a cultural perception that alcohol is an integral part of social celebrations, sensitizing them on the negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption may soften their reception to health promotional campaigns in future.
The objectives for this intervention plan is diverse. However, the main focus for the company will be on policy issues, engagement with relevant stakeholders and communication with the relevant bodies (Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee, 2000). From this understanding, the first objective of this initiative is to reduce the prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in the society. Secondly, this initiative will be aimed at informing and influencing health promotion policies, and finally, the last objective would be to come up with a long-term and sustainable strategy of eliminating or reducing drug abuse and alcohol misuse prevalence in the community.
The health promotional model has been used in several organizational contexts. For instance the model is greatly used in the nursing practice. The design was used to improve the application of health promotional programs in the nursing practice. Whitehead (2003) carried out a research study to evaluate reasons nurses did not correctly implement the health promotional model and noted that, the nurses failed to evaluate the procedures associated with the model (Whitehead, 2003).
The network for alcoholism and other drug agencies has also used the health promotional model in sustaining the activities of non-governmental organizations and the drug enforcement agencies to curb drug and alcoholism problems (NADA, 2011). Through this model, the network for alcoholism and other drug agencies was able to provide leadership, advocacy, quality and sustainability to its subjects (NADA, 2011). The model was used between the period of 2009 and 2010. It achieved desired results.
Synchronization with Existing Health Promotional Activities
First, the intervention program will be centered on ensuring there is a strong legislative support so that other activities in the entire intervention program are easily completed (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1). To achieve this objective, the intervention will be designed to provide a framework where health experts can take part in political processes related to health promotion in the community (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1). This involves supporting governmental efforts to sensitize the public against the effects of drug abuse and excessive alcohol consumption. This initiative is designed from recommendations made from studies done to evaluate why previous health promotional programs failed. It was established that, previous health promotional programs failed because they were short-term in nature and failed to synchronize with existing health promotional activities (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1).
Since the health promotional initiative is designed to adopt a community-based approach in tackling drugs and alcohol abuse, a school-based sensitization effort will be adopted (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1). Schools are chosen because they are identified to be the most prominent community platform where people get involved with drugs and alcohol (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1). Health promotional campaigns will therefore be undertaken to sensitize young people against the effects of drugs and alcohol. This initiative is adopted because existing studies document that, previous health promotional initiatives have failed because they do not adopt a community-based approach. This approach has been successfully used in North west Minnesota (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1).
Social Marketing will be included as part of the intervention program because a careful research on social group testing needs to be undertaken to ascertain which population groups should be strongly targeted with the health promotional campaigns. This approach will therefore be used to identify the right target group for the health promotional campaign. It will equally be used to ascertain the drug patterns in the community (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1). The approach will also be designed in a manner to enable easy synchronization of the health promotional campaign with similar campaigns existing in the community. Non-media information will also be dissipated to community members through community involvement (Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 1).
This study affirms the use of the health promotional model in the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse in the community. This model is aimed at changing people’s behaviors and patterns regarding alcohol and drug abuse. The model therefore provides the blueprint for the development of a health promotional plan. The health promotional plan is however centered on ensuring there is a good social marketing plan and a workable school-based initiative that reduces drug and alcohol abuse. These activities are designed to be in synchrony with existing health promotional campaigns.
Marriner-Tomey, A. (2006). Nursing Theorists And Their Work. Michigan: Elsevier Health Sciences.
NADA. (2011). Health Promotion Action Plan. NSW: Health Promotion Subcommittee.
Oxford University Press. (2011). Illicit Drugs: Effective Prevention Requires A Health Promotion Approach. Web.
Perry, C. (1996). Project Northland: outcomes of a community-wide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 95.
Victoria Drug Policy Expert Committee. (2000). Drugs: Meeting the challenge. Stage Two Report. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.
Whitehead, D. (2003). Evaluating health promotion: a model for nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(5), 490–498.