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Nursing: Human-to-Human Relationship Model


In the Unit 5 assignment, Joyce Travelbee’s human-to-human relationship model was analyzed and evaluated according to four main stages of research. It is essential to restate the immense importance of this model for the development of contemporary nursing. As it was concluded in the Unit 5 assignment, Travelbee’s model served as the foundation for the elaboration of the patient-oriented method, which is common in modern nursing practice (Staal, 2015). However, it is also important to discuss the application of the Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical (C-T-E) structure, described by Fawcett (2017), to the process of developing Travelbee’s theory. This paper aims to investigate the given question from the perspective of the theorist; thus, the main body will be written in the voice of Joyce Travelbee.

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Application of C-T-E Structure to the Process of Theorizing

Since the C-T-E structure is a three-stage process, I will dwell upon each of the stages in a logical sequence, from the most abstract notions to practical questions. Therefore, the first stage that is to be discussed is the conceptual (C) component of the structure. Concerning the fundamental assumptions and propositions that should be included in the C stage, it is possible to mention the following: the dehumanization of a patient, motivation as the critical component of an individual’s well-being, communication, which is based on hope and trust. These concepts express the need of every person for communication, trust, and love, remaining a unique human being who is treated with respect and dignity. Also, the patients should not be dehumanized by the clinical system; they should retrieve meaningful experience from their illness.

Further, it is possible to state the core assumption of the theoretical (T) component of the structure. The assumption is as follows: since the patient seeks for trusting and meaningful relationships with the nurse, it is essential to implement the nursing intervention, which will be based on reciprocal communication. This assumption represents the concise summary of the broader concepts from the previous C component. They are translated into the theoretical basis for the creation of a practical model, which will be discussed in the following section.

Since the development of a practical framework was the initial goal of the whole theorizing process, it is possible to dwell upon the third stage of the C-T-E structure more profoundly. The empirical (E) component of the process is my human-to-human relationship model. It was developed based on the previous stages of conceptualization and theorizing as well as on the clinical practice and my personal experience. Based on the acquired knowledge, I can assume that the model includes five primary phases: observation, interpretation, decision-making, intervention, and appraisal. Each of the stages is guided by the nurse; however, the patient should also be a prominent figure in the process, providing feedback, and adjusting the nurse’s actions toward the most efficient outcome. It is also possible to notice that the model is capable of repeated application, which is of high importance since the nursing process could be prolonged or the results might be insufficient.


In conclusion, it is essential to mention that Joyce Travelbee’s human-to-human relationship model is an excellent example of the C-T-E structure’s application. Fawcett (2017) considered this structure to be widely applicable to nursing practice and theory, which was presented in this paper. The paper’s main body was written from the perspective of the theorist, which gave an exciting opportunity to retrace Travelbee’s rational pattern of the model’s creation.


Fawcett, J. (2017). Applying conceptual models of nursing: Quality improvement, research, and practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Staal, J. (2015). Joyce Travelbee’s human-to-human relationship model and its applications. In M. C. Smith & M. E. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.) (pp. 76-81). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.

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"Nursing: Human-to-Human Relationship Model." StudyCorgi, 25 Dec. 2020,

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StudyCorgi. "Nursing: Human-to-Human Relationship Model." December 25, 2020.


StudyCorgi. 2020. "Nursing: Human-to-Human Relationship Model." December 25, 2020.


StudyCorgi. (2020) 'Nursing: Human-to-Human Relationship Model'. 25 December.

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