The health promotion model (HPM) developed by Pender in 1990 relies on behavioral science and nursing approaches in order to gain an understanding of “the complex biopsychosocial processes that motivate individuals to engage in behaviors directed toward enhancing health” (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2015, p. 74). HPM is a motivational model that is used for instilling health-promoting behavior in patients, thereby attaining positive health outcomes. The theory of humanbecoming was developed by Parse in 1981 (Poirier, 2012). The theory’s main focus is to help nurse practitioners to concentrate on the quality of life according to its conceptualization by individuals themselves. The aim of this paper is to explore how these two models have influenced advanced nursing practice.
According to Pender, the HPM can be used for the development of behavioral counseling that is necessary for the promotion of healthy lifestyles (as cited in Sharifirad, Kamran, Azadbakht, Mahaki, & Mohebi, 2015). The Pender’s view of health that resulted in the creation of the model has substantially influenced advanced nursing practice by shifting its focus from dealing with the results of negative health behavior to making it more predictive. In the period from 2012 to 2013, more than 150 papers on the HRM were registered in Google Scholar (Pender et al., 2015). It serves as a testament to the model’s ability to analyze a large number of concepts and anticipate patients’ behavioral patterns such as physical activity, oral health, diet, and hearing protection among others (Pender et al., 2015).
The main principle of the theory of humanbecoming is that individuals exist in an environment created by rhythmical patterns of the universe, in which they are free to choose between different actions and attach their meanings to those actions (Poirier, 2012). The development of the Parse’s theory has radically changed the practice of advanced practice nurses by introducing into it the concept of every patient being an amalgam of psychological, physiological, spiritual, and sociological elements (Poirier, 2012). The introduction of this concept has made possible the application of a transformative approach to advanced nursing practice by allowing health care professionals to better understand perspectives of their patients. Application of the Parse’s theoretical perspective has created a paradigm shift for advanced practice nurses. The theory of humanbecoming is especially relevant in modern, ever-evolving health care practice because it presupposes that health is also an ever-changing process.
The eighth AACN essential of master’s education in nursing titled Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving Health recognizes the necessity to include preventive interventions into nursing practice (AACN, 2011). Taking into consideration the fact that the level of diversity of the U.S. population has been rapidly increasing for the last several decades, there is a need to create nursing practice that would be “equitable and responsive to the unique cultural and ethnic identity, socio-economic condition, emotional and spiritual needs, and values of patients” (AACN, 2011, p. 24). Therefore, it can be argued that the Pender’s model provides one of the best theoretical perspectives that can be utilized in advanced nursing practice for carrying out the requirements of the AACN eighth essential. The HPM recognizes that every patient has been endowed with unique personal characteristics that affect their behavior.
By basing planning, delivery, and management of health care services on HPM and the theory of humanbecoming concepts, it is possible to create individually and culturally responsive advanced nursing practice. The two theoretical approaches to nursing have completely transformed the practice of the advanced practice nurses.
AACN. (2011). The essentials of master’s education in nursing. Web.
Pender, N., Murdaugh, C. L., & Parsons, M. A. (2015). Health promotion in nursing practice. New York, NY: Pearson.
Poirier, P. (2012). Humanbecoming: Transcending the now to explore the possibles in health policy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 25(1), 104-110.
Sharifirad, G., Kamran, A., Azadbakht, L., Mahaki, B., & Mohebi, S. (2015). The relationship between blood pressure and the structures of Pender′s health promotion model in rural hypertensive patients. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 4(1), 29-36.