The psychoanalytic perspective involves the affiliation between unconscious and conscious psychological state. This perspective is not suitable for teamwork but it takes place between the analyst and the patient. One of the key persons linked to the psychoanalytic perspective is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund developed several theories such as psychosexual growth, unconscious and neurosis transference, and trauma theory (Carpenter et al., 2010). He also developed defense mechanisms which include; superego, ego, and the id which were used in the future study of the personality of human beings.
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The behaviorist perspective deals with human behavior and how it’s influenced by the environment. This perspective demonstrates that the environment plays a big role in determining what human beings will become in the future. Ivan Pavlov is one of the key contributors to the Behaviorist theory. He discovered that dogs reacted in a certain way (salivating) when they saw food and this led to the invention of classical conditioning (Carpenter et al., 2010).
The humanist perspective is the study of actions that are performed voluntarily. Examples of this perspective are self-actualization, values, personal responsibility, and spirituality (Martin et al., 2000). Carl Rogers is one of the main contributors to this perspective. According to him, human beings struggle to achieve self-satisfaction. He stated that human beings adopt certain behaviors depending on the in-line with the perception of self.
The cognitive perspective highlights the concept of information dispensation, perception, and ones’ thoughts. In the present world, psychologists use a wide range of mental dispensation to study how human beings store information. Jean Piaget was a major contributor to this perspective. He discovered various steps of cognitive development and he alleged that grown-ups differ from children in terms of cognitive development and process (Carpenter et al., 2010).
Neuroscientific/biopsychological perspective is a process whereby scientists apply complicated technology to learn about behavior via the nervous system and genetics lens. Being a major contributor, Johannes Muller is considered to have discovered physiology. His major contribution to this perspective included; mechanism of the senses and nervous behaviors (Martin et al., 2000).
The evolutionary perspective emphasizes mostly behavior development and natural acclimatization in the psychological process (Carpenter et al., 2010). Being a major contributor, Konrad Lorenz researched animal behavior and this aided him to learn about peoples’ social behavior patterns. For instance, the brain of human beings can recognize a snake; figure out that it’s dangerous, and instigate a reaction of fear.
The sociocultural perspective states that the relationship of human beings in society has a direct impact on one’s perception; the way human beings think and make their judgments (Martin et al., 2000). Lev Vygotsky concentrated mainly on sociocultural theory and came up with ways through which this theory influences human beings from childhood to adulthood. For instance, children are believed to learn by imitating the people around them.
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|Biological||predict, caution, and describe||Point out numerous pros of correlation, experimental, and descriptive study.||Pointing out almost all pros of correlation, experimental and descriptive study||Biologically Stating the reasons why these issues take place|
|Experimental||uncover the cause and outcome||Permit control of research||Practical restrictions and ethical worry||Pointing out the interactions between variables|
|Correlational||Find the interactions between variables and how they spot each other.||Assists to elucidate interactions between variables that may not be studied through other techniques. It also permits prediction.||Scientists are not able to spot the cause and result.||Point out the interaction between different approaches.|
|Descriptive||Naturalistic case studies, assessments, and examinations||Gathering of data is simpler, deceitfulness is negligible, permits psychological and behavior depiction processes as they arise.||Variables control is quite minimal or not present, prejudice of partakers and research may not clarify cause and effect||monitoring an individual in a particular circumstance|
Compare and contrast between experimental and descriptive
Both experimental and descriptive methods present a clear picture of the things taking place at a stipulated time and this allows the participants to conclude. They both permit participants to ask questions for future research.
In contrast, the main objective of descriptive research is to come up with snapshots of the present situations. On the other hand, experimental reviews the fundamental effect of a single or more experimental exploitation on a contingent variable (Martin et al., 2000).
Psychologists study twins for the reason that they share a distinctive ratio of the same genes. Psychologist’s study adopted children to identify the traits that are more powerful about environmental and genetic traits. These studies help psychologists to determine the heritability of different traits (Martin et al., 2000).
The main function of neurotransmitters is to trigger the receptor that is required to act whereas hormones assist the body to adapt to the surroundings. Hormones also ensure that the body works suitably.
Neurotransmitters influence the brain and behavior by informing the synapses to head out to allow the pulse to pass through. Also, they are in charge of hormonal balance in humans. Hormones influence the brain and behavior through controlling body processes such as metabolism, fertility, auto-immune system, and development. They also influence the limbic system and reproductive organs (Carpenter et al., 2010).
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to adjust its purpose and structure due to its experience and practice. It helps humans to become accustomed to any situation.
Carpenter, S., & Huffman, K. (2010). Visualizing psychology (2nd Ed). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Wiley Plus.
Martin, S., & Mihaly, C. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist 55 (1): 5–14.