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Personality Type and Work-Related Outcomes

Personality is a set of features that differentiate people one from another. Theorists have been trying to define the words personality and trait for many years. Some psychologists claim that trait theory is “a trend to emphasize the importance and centrality of stability parameters in human personality” (Cohen, Ornoy, & Keren, 2013, p. 79). The world has seen a wide range of different theories devoted to this phenomenon. Nevertheless, there is still no general agreement on what are the constituents of personality, leadership, and intelligence. (Cohen et al., 2013). In the course of the assignment, I will study different personality types, understand the individual personality type that will help me to determine how it can affect the leadership in a health care organization.

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Personality Types Theories

One of the most popular theories suggesting different personality types is The Big Five Personality Traits, or also known as The Five Factor Model. It is the theory that differentiates people by assigning them to “one or more of the following five traits: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism” (Cohen et al., 2013, p. 79). The Big Five theory assumes that a person can be associated with more than one trait due to its very complex nature and many-sided personality.

Another popular model, which outlines several personality types, is an Enneagram. This typology suggests that individuals are to be assigned to one of nine types, which represent a “preferred or habitual way of dealing with the world” (Sutton, Allinson, & Williams, 2013, p.235). The nine types include Perfectionists, Givers, Performers, Romantics, Observers, Loyal Sceptics, Epicures, Protectors, and Mediators (Sutton et al., 2013, pp.236-237). Sutton et al. (2013) state that this typology captures and takes into account the changes in people’s characteristics, which occur in stressful situations.

Another personality type theory that is interesting for the assignment is the one of Carl J. Jung and Isabel Briggs Myers. The key point of this theory is that people can be differentiated by their “preference of general attitude” (Personality type explained, n.d., para. 1). The theory was initially proposed by Carl J. Jung and included three types of preferences: Extraverted (E) vs. Introverted (I), Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N), and Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F). Later, Isabel Briggs Myers proposed to enhance the theory by adding the fourth type, which is Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P) (Personality type explained, n.d.).

My Personality Type

For this assignment, I was supposed to pass the personality test to determine my personality type following the Myers–Briggs typology. After completing the test, it became clear that my type of personality is ENFJ. It means that I have slight preferences of Extraversion over Introversion (12%), Intuition over Sensing (9%), Feeling over Thinking (16%), and marginal or no preference of Judging over Perceiving (3%) (Humanmetrics Jung typology test: Your type, n.d.). The first criterion indicates that I am a social person and prefer the “external world” to the “internal” one (Personality type explained, n.d.). The second criterion demonstrates that I rely on my intuition more than trust somebody’s statements when solving problems and making decisions. The third criterion shows that I make decisions based on my emotions and what-is-the-right-thing-to-do feelings rather than based on logical assumptions. The fourth criterion indicates that I both prefer to improvise and stick to thought-out plans. (Personality type explained, n.d.). However, I must underline that mentioned preferences were slight and marginal. I believe that this fact demonstrates that I am a balanced person and can easily change my attitude and leadership strategy depending on the particular situation. Thus, I have determined my personality type.

Personality Influence on Effective Leadership

Personality traits invariably affect all spheres of our lives. More precisely, I believe that my personality type can both enhance, and hinder my leadership in the health care environment. Based on the test results, I assume that I can equally use different sides of my personality to win in different situations. This correlates with the Vroom-Yetton Contingency Model, which is based on the situational approach towards decision-making. For example, the leader can either make a decision alone or collect the information from the employees and then decide by oneself (Mls & Otĉenáŝková, 2013). This strategy requires intuition and feeling. In this situation, I can refer to these personality traits that will help me to succeed. Alternatively, I can stick to consultative and group types (CI, CII, GII) of the Vroom-Yetton Model and share the problem with my team, which will provide necessary details or professional opinions on the issue and will come to a perfect decision through collaborative thinking (Mls & Otĉenáŝková, 2013). In this case, I will use my extraversion and thinking traits. Besides, this collaborative strategy correlates with Stephen Covey’s recommendations for effective leaders. His Habit 4, also known as think win-win, reflects the idea of a cooperative approach. Covey believed that success vastly depends on cooperation (Stephen Covey’s seven habits of highly effective people review, n.d.).

Health care is an extremely challenging sector to work in. That is why I believe that effective leadership in a health care environment requires a perfect balance between the strengths and weaknesses of the manager.

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Thus, I studied various personality types. Later on, by completing the test, I have determined and understood my personality type. I also analyzed how my personality traits can be both strengths and weaknesses in a health care environment by enhancing or hindering leadership in certain situations.


Cohen, Y., Ornoy, H., & Keren, B. (2013). MBTI personality types of project managers and their success: A field survey. Project Management Journal, 44(3), 78-87.

Humanmetrics Jung typology test: Your type. (n.d.). 

Mls, K., & Otĉenáŝková, T. (2013). Analysis of complex decisional situations in companies with the support of AHP extension of Vroom-Yetton contingency model. IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 46(9), 549-554.

Personality type explained. (n.d.). 

Stephen Covey’s seven habits of highly effective people review. (n.d.). 

Sutton, A., Allinson, C., & Williams, H. (2013). Personality type and work-related outcomes: An exploratory application of the Enneagram model. European Management Journal, 31(3), 234-249.

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