In the modern world, human needs and demands determine the creation of new objects. Facilities design as a type of activity is used in all areas of life, such as construction, business, manufacture of clothing, and others. To create useful and high-quality products in enterprises, a large number of specialists should take part in the development of the project. Facilities design organizations, as a rule, specialize in the design of objects of a particular construction area: industrial, hydraulic, land reclamation, civil, agricultural, or transport. The difference between organizations of various industries is usually in the corresponding specialization of their departments and personnel, while their organizational structure does not depend on the industry orientation. Nevertheless, general requirements governing the personnel’s work in the field of facilities planning are similar in all industries. This paper will analyze the personnel requirements for design engineers as principal representatives for the facilities planning sector.
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Job Requirements for Design Engineers
Engineers are essential workers in facilities design who perform most of the planning tasks. Design engineers are engaged in the development and refinement of architectural drawings of buildings in terms of the location of the necessary systems. They should be highly knowledgeable in the areas of water supply, sewage, electricity, telephone and Internet cables, ventilation and air conditioning, and fire safety (Pärn, Edwards, & Sing, 2017). Based on the latest scientific and technical achievements, advanced domestic and foreign experience in the design, construction, and operation of facilities, and using design automation, design engineers develop separate sections of the project. They take part in the preparation of tasks for the development of design solutions. Furthermore, they participate in the collection of initial data for design together with the resolution of technical issues on fixed facilities throughout the entire period of work. Construction, commissioning of the facility, and development of design capacities are also required from the design engineer. This professional also carries out patent research to ensure patent cleanliness of new design solutions and patentability.
Moreover, taking into account the specifics of the job, the design engineer ensures compliance of the developed projects and technical documentation with the standards, specifications, and other regulatory documents for design and construction. These workers carry out supervision of the construction of designed facilities and advice on issues within their competence (Pärn et al., 2017). What is more, they participate in the analysis and generalization of experience in developing projects and their implementation in construction and, on this basis, prepare proposals on the feasibility of adjusting the adopted fundamental design decisions. Finally, the design engineer takes part in the elaboration of applications for inventions, the preparation of conclusions and reviews on rationalization proposals and inventions, draft standards, specifications, and other regulatory documents in seminars and conferences.
Knowledge Necessary for Design Engineers
The main function of design engineers is to develop drawings in accordance with the guidelines and regulations existing in a given field of work. The goal is to issue design documentation for construction and installation works. Representatives of this specialty facilitate the life and work of people with the help of complex mechanisms and functional devices (Cristea, 2017). Therefore, engineer designers in the performance of his or her duties must know methods of designing and conducting technical and economic calculations as well as operating principles, manufacturing, and installation technologies for equipment and structures. This professional should also be aware of decisions and orders of higher authorities, methodological and regulatory documents for design. Their skills should include the construction and operation of facilities as well as standards, specifications, and other guidance materials on the development and execution of the plan and estimate documentation (Pärn et al., 2017). They should also be informed about technical means of design and construction, basics of patent science, and advanced domestic and foreign experience in design and development. Finally, the engineering designer must be familiar with technical, economic, environmental, and social requirements for the designed facilities, as well as be acquainted with rules and norms of labor protection.
Rights of Design Engineers
In compliance with labor law, design engineers have the right to submit proposals for consideration by the organization’s director: to improve the work associated with the obligations in this instruction and to encourage distinguished employees. They also have the right to request from the structural units and employees of the organization the information necessary for them to perform their duties (Pärn et al., 2017). Moreover, they are authorized to get acquainted with the documents defining their rights and responsibilities in the current position and criteria for assessing the quality of performance of official duties. They also can get acquainted with draft decisions of the organization’s management regarding its activities. Design engineers can also require the organization’s administration to provide assistance, including the provision of organizational and technical conditions and execution of the established documents necessary for the performance of official duties. In addition, they can have other rights established by applicable labor law.
Responsibilities of Design Engineers
Design engineers are responsible in the following cases; firstly, for improper performance or non-performance of their duties stipulated by this job description, within limits established by the labor legislation of the given country. Secondly, for offenses committed in the course of their activities, within limits established by the applicable administrative, criminal and civil legislation of the given country (Lian, 2018). Thirdly, for causing material damage to the organization to the extent established by the current labor and civil legislation of the state.
Ethical Standards of Design Engineer Work
The code of international professional ethics of design engineers defines the ethical foundations, and fundamental rules of professional activity carried out by relevant specialists. That is, people with certain qualifications, knowledge, skills, experience, and capability of providing appropriate services or performing special work in the field of designing civil, industrial, and agricultural facilities should follow a set of ethical principles (Lian, 2018). According to these principles, design engineers should establish exemplary ethical rules and professional behaviors in their relations with each other, with investors and customers of project products, with regulatory bodies, and other participants of the investment process (Cristea, 2017). In addition, they should maintain a high level of competence and professionalism in the field of designing capital construction projects, ensuring the prestige of professional affiliation. At the same time, they must provide the conscientious fulfillment of professional functions and obligations to society, customers, and colleagues. Therefore, design engineers in their job activity must fully demonstrate their expert knowledge and skills with the utmost conscientiousness and responsibility.
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Design engineers mainly work in offices, at drawing tables, preparing their projects, or go on business trips to the place of the existing construction. They collect information, get acquainted with the area, monitor the progress of the project, and make their own adjustments. A whole set of rules has been created for the office space of the engineer. Workplace parameters are selected in accordance with anthropometric characteristics. When working in a sitting position, the following working space parameters are recommended for the workplace: width of at least 1300 mm; depth not less than 550 mm; the height of the working surface of the table above the floor 700-750 mm (Heragu & Jamoussi, 2017). The other important element in the workplace of the design engineer is the chair. When designing a chair, it is assumed that, for any working position of the design engineer, his posture must be physiologically correctly substantiated: the position of the parts of the body should be optimal.
The other critical element is the illumination of the workplace. Efficient lighting of the workplace is one of the most critical factors affecting the efficiency of a person’s labor activity, preventing injuries and occupational diseases. Properly organized lighting creates favorable working conditions as well as increases working capacity and labor productivity. Light at the design engineer’s workplace should be such that the employee can perform his or her work without eye strain. Insufficiency of lighting leads to eye strain, weakens attention, and causes the onset of premature fatigue. Excessively bright light causes blinding, irritation, and pain in the eyes. The incorrect direction of light at the workplace can create sharp shadows, glare, and disorientate the worker. Accordingly, the creation of favorable working conditions and the correct aesthetic design of furniture in the work of the design engineer is of great importance both for facilitating work and for increasing its attractiveness, which positively affects labor productivity.
The work of design engineers is contraindicated for people with the following diseases. First of all, there are diseases of the vestibular apparatus, deformation of the fingers, and conditions of respiratory organs, including chronic bronchitis and chronic pneumonia. Medical contraindications also include diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, heart failure, and ailment of the musculoskeletal system, limiting the mobility of the hands, sciatica, osteochondrosis (Heragu & Jamoussi, 2017). Finally, design engineers should not suffer from mental illnesses and disorders of the nervous system, irritability, and severe visual defects. Facility planning is a very delicate and complex work, where the most substantial structures are indicated on paper up to millimeters. Therefore, specialists must have excellent vision and do not suffer from deformation of fingers; otherwise, they will not be able to do their job.
Currently, facilities design is widespread all over the world due to the fact that there is no practical activity to create material objects that would not need the participation of design engineers. The creation of design objects is possible only with an understanding of the features of design planning, mastery of its scientific and theoretical base, and development of project thinking. The profession of the design engineer is very tiring; however, it is diluted by meetings, business trips, and interaction with other employees of the project. As the key representatives of the facilities planning sector, design engineers need to handle various job requirements, possess the specialized knowledge necessary for their profession, and follow ethical standards within the framework of their job.
Cristea, Z. (2017). Eliminate decision bias in facilities planning. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 69(12), 64-65.
Heragu, S. S., & Jamoussi, A. (2017). Facilities design and planning. In The Routledge companion to production and operations management (pp. 147-168). London, England: Routledge.
Lian, J. (2018). Facilities Planning and design: An introduction for facility planners, facility project managers, and facility managers. Singapore: World Scientific.
Pärn, E. A., Edwards, D. J., & Sing, M. C. P. (2017). The building information modeling trajectory in facilities management: A review. Automation in Construction, 75, 45-55.