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“Philosophy: The Power of Ideas” by Brooke and Kenneth

Explain and evaluate the Hindu ideas of Brahman, atman and reality

Karma stands for “action” that leads to a number of outcomes, as a result of man’s desire for earthly things (Moore & Bruder 489). For example, Karma suggests that a noble action leads to happiness, whereas, an evil action results in grief and unhappiness. Samsara stands for renaissance or renewal of a human being, as a result of, Karma (human actions). Man must bring to an end Samsara (rebirth) and initiate Nirvana. Nirvana is a point when every person’s desire ends – referred to salvation. With reference to Buddhism, Nirvana ends human suffering.

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Explain the Buddha’s four noble truths. Is he correct in his view?

Brahman stands for the Hindu god, the highest omnipresent being and the highest level of truth, inspirational realization and state of heaven/happiness (Moore & Bruder 487). Atman stands for the soul or character. Hindus believe that Atman stands for a living being. Buddhists believe that the soul does not exist and the false perception of the soul is not inspirational. Reality is the truth that is as well seen as Brahman and “jagat” (earthly invention) is “maya” a false impression. Reality is a high character, full of inspiration, intelligence and eternal life.

Explain the connection or relationship between Tao, Yin, and Yang

The first truth entails suffering associated with growing old, contracting diseases and dying (Moore & Bruder 531). The second truth is brought about by man’s desire for earthly things that lead to physical suffering. The third noble truth indicates that an end to suffering is achievable (Nirvana). The fourth noble truth points out that the noble eightfold paths, to put an end to suffering is available. Buddha is correct in the view of seeking human happiness. Buddha unveils the true paths of life that man must go through in order to achieve happiness.

Explain and evaluate Lao Tzu’s notion of effortless non-striving

The eightfold paths of Buddhism create the solution for a happy life, without suffering. These paths include eight right factors which include, view (four noble truths), aim, speech, action, life, and effort, understanding and right mindfulness (Moore & Bruder 531). The eightfold paths of Buddhism do not form a realistic philosophy for existence. Apparently, Buddha keeps changing thoughts. For example, Buddha’s claims, that there is no path after indicating the eightfold paths calls into question the relevance of this philosophy for life.

Explain and evaluate Confucius’s principle of Mean

Tao is the natural order of events that keeps on changing, from left to right and back (Moore & Bruder 494). From this transformation, Tao generates extroverted powers in the world – Yang. In addition, Tao generates introverted powers – Yin. Above all, Tao stands for an empty container that holds an energy that outlines objects to completion. For example, men may feel feminine similar to women who may feel masculine, at one point in life.

Explain and evaluate the views of Murasaki Shikibu and the role and status of women

Lao Tzu’s notion of effortless non-striving indicates that there should be no need to disturb or go against the natural flow of events (Moore & Bruder 494). Lao Tzu’s notion focuses on allowing nature to take control of events. It is not compelling enough to believe that nature should drive human actions. Human beings will acquire opportunities to exploit evil actions for individual pleasure.

Explain and evaluate the argument of St. Anselm for God’s existence

Confucius’s principle of Mean indicates that every event or human actions need to endeavour for the middle way of moderation (Moore & Bruder 504). This middle way is the mean that stands for balancing noble and evil actions. Human beings need to walk on this middle path of moderation in order to avoid going to the extremes that will restrain joy and happiness.

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Explain and evaluate Guanilo’s objection to the ontological argument

Murasaki Shikibu is a Japanese Philosopher who attempts to influence Japanese women philosophers on their role and status in society (Moore & Bruder 517). Shakibu accepts the Buddhist thought of women as weak in morality. However, she changes the meaning to suit the women’s needs. She claims that the cause of transgressions was their former life as men. In this regard, she indicates that, they may not enter the Western Paradise as a result of the virtuous men.

Summarize and evaluate St. Thomas Aquinas’s Five Ways

St. Anselm argument for God’s existence is on the basis of conceiving a being that is omnipotent (Moore & Bruder 398). St. Anselm’s ontological argument indicates that, if individuals can envisage anything, then something exists. Conversely, this philosophy falls short given that existing stands for living in an actual life but not in thoughts.

Leibniz claims that this is the best of all possible worlds’

Guanilo objects St. Anselm’s ontological argument of God’s existence by indicating that this reasoning cannot be used to establish the existence of anything (Moore & Bruder 399). Guanilo gives an example of an island, indicating the possibility of envisioning objects or beings. Conversely, this may not point out that they are present in actuality. Anything that does not exist lacks material properties. Therefore, envisioned objects cannot exist in reality.

Why does he say this?

First, Aquinas claims that, things do not exist (in motion) without being created by a superior being (Moore & Bruder 400). Secondly, Aquinas claims that every cause has an effect. He clearly indicates that, where there is a cause (God), there is an effect (creation). Thirdly, Aquinas indicates that there are things that must not exist in the first place. These things came to existence on a matter of necessity caused by a necessary being – God. Fourthly, Aquinas considers natural entities as having various qualities such as greatness, nobleness and truth. Natural entities connect to the only creator of these entities – God. Finally, he claims that natural entities are designed with intelligence for a clear goal by God. Aquinas arguments on God’s existence are justifiable.

Do you agree with his assertion?

  1. Leibniz claims ‘this is the best of all possible worlds’ to indicate that God created the world perfectly and with good intentions (Moore & Bruder 411). Additionally, he claims that every evil nature or acts of imperfection is as a result of man’s irresponsible actions.
  2. Yes, I agree with this assertion. Man continues to turn the natural world to complex and corrupted area of existence with science, technology, socio-economic and political actions.

Explain and evaluate Friedrich Nietzsche’s claim that God is dead

Friedrich Nietzsche’s claim that God is dead is derived from the extent that human beings intelligently dispute mysteries of existence (Moore & Bruder 420). Nietzsche indicates that since science computes a number of mysteries that have previously been associated with God, then all philosophies seeking to establish God’s existence lacks foundation. This reasoning is flawed when argued on the basis of scientists forming part of God’s creation.

Explain and evaluate the views the views of William James regarding religious belief

The thoughts of William James on the subject of religious belief are that, human beings need to show true and honest religious transformation through religious experience (Moore & Bruder 422). When an individual becomes born again, yet they still maintain earlier practices, they are not truly religious. This reasoning is factual and shows the true commitment in religion and man’s relationship with God.

Explain how it is possible that your religious views are right and yet everyone else’s (expect those who believe as you) are wrong. Smile therapy

In the smile therapy, anyone can hide sadness, sorrow and grief with a fake or impersonated smile. Therefore, individuals can conceal evil personalities under the cover of religion and false righteousness.

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Works Cited

Moore Brooke and Bruder Kenneth. Philosophy: The power of ideas. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2011. 398-531. Print.

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